Franz Lee.Org.Ve












About Us

















Misión Marx


Our Philosophy


Natural Science


Contact Us


Our Videos

Libros / Books



Recent Visitors


Diplomado Marx

Photo Gallery



“Hay hombres que luchan un día, hay hombres que luchan un día y son buenos, hay otros que luchan muchos años y son muy buenos, pero hay quienes luchan toda la vida: Esos son imprescindibles”.

 Bertolt Brecht, dramaturgo, poeta, escritor, preso político. Fallecido en extrañas circunstancias.

Franz & Jutta

Who is

Franz J.T. Lee?

¿Quién es

Franz J. T. Lee? 



Welcome! ¡Bienvenidos! Willkommen!

Franz Visiting Ghost City. 
Franz visitando la Ciudad
de los Fantasmas.

Franz J. T. Lee: Short simple lecture on:





**** Moore might look like a blob, yet he doesn't necessarily need to behave like one
*** Michael Moore, instead of disseminating hoaxes about Venezuela, please, please produce true documentals about the mortal coming agony of mankind, of world fascism.
**** El ‘descubrimiento’ de América por Cristóbal Colón: ¿La mentira más grande de todos los tiempos?
El ‘descubrimiento’ de América por Cristóbal Colón: ¿La mentira más grande de todos los tiempos?
Por Franz J. T. Lee
Columbus' 'discovery' of America: the greatest hoax of all times?
Columbus' 'discovery' of America: the greatest hoax of all times?
By Franz J. T. Lee

**** Exclusive Interview with Franz J. T. Lee: Venezuela and the USA
Wednesday, February 27, 2008 - 12:42
**** The demise of the dollar By Robert FisTuesday, October 06, 2009.

**** Entrevista a Franz J. T. Lee: De verdad afirma que ni siquiera Dios confía en el billete verde?
Fecha: 25/02/08
Guerra preventiva: Bases militares en Colombia amenazan paz de América Latina -

Annihilation of all capitalist alliances, organizations, common wealths, 'unions', 'united states' or 'united nations' which perpetuate global exploitation ...
Franz J. T. Lee

**** Comentario: Aniquilación de todas las alianzas capitalistas, organizaciones, mancomunidades, uniones, 'Estados unidos' o 'naciones unidas' que eternalizan la explotación global ...
Por: Franz J. T. Lee

**** Crisis financiera internacional y fin de la hegemonía del dólar: EE.UU. versus ALBA
Por: Jutta Schmitt

**** International Financial Crisis and End of the Dollar Hegemony:
United States versus ALBA
By: Jutta Schmitt

***** Preparing the ground for military aggression
against Venezuela and Latin America:
The Big Lie Strategy in operation
By Jutta Schmitt

**** Fourth Generation Warfare: Twisting our minds into total submission
Fourth Generation Warfare:
Twisting our minds into total submission
by Jutta Schmitt

**** Preparando el terreno para la agresión militar contra Venezuela y América Latina: La estrategia de la gran mentira en operación
Por: Jutta Schmitt

**** Guerra de Cuarta Generación:
Trastornando nuestras mentes hacia la sumisión total
Por: Jutta Schmitt

**** Kwame Nkrumah: La Cara Oscura de la Revolución Bolivariana
**** Kwame Nkrumah: The dark face of the Bolivarian Revolution

**** Moore might look like a blob, yet he doesn't necessarily need to behave like one

VHeadline guest commentarist Franco Munini writes: After reading Eva Golinger's article and the response from the editor, I would like to add my own comments.

Eva has all the right to feel outraged at Moore's ridiculization of his encounter with Chavez. Moore could have made justice by adding that the whole thing was meant as a joke ... he knows that the true Chavez episode was not going to scare or inflame people to a level that could be harmful to his expected revenues from his latest film.

He didn't do it ... he didn't even attempt to do it.

The movie he's just produced meddles with an old enemy of USAmerica: capitalism. He was bragging a lot about it, in Venice and later in the USA; each day or so he sent messages about the movie to his distribution list with links to his site, then some guys came forward with an unconceivable offense to peace by awarding Obama a Nobel Prize.

Moore's caustic reaction was immediate ... and then something happened. He suddenly came forward with olive branches and calls for patience ... we can't expect Obama to fix all the mess left by Kaiser Bush at a snap of fingers, can we? ...then more candies at Dems ...and then this mockery about his meeting with Chavez.

I dunno... I wonder if the guy received a phone call or some form of threat that made him change his attitude. Maybe somebody got him taped. Some powerful guys might dislike what he says in the movie. ...or maybe he's convinced that capitalism and democracy can be spelled together in the same phrase, like the one I think he said: "Democratic capitalism."

The point here is that he is not just portraying Chavez as a noisy partying guest in some hotel. He's delivering a picture of Latin American leaders that's hooked on cliches to a large audience that he was supposed to set free from cliches. He's weakening any informed interpretation of the struggles taking place south of the Rio Grande. He made the Venezuelan President a tequila drinker, the Venezuelan chancellor a bodyguard ... what do we expect he'd make Zelaya? Or Correa?

Moore is famous enough to benefit from controversial encounters. Any kind of public threat to him would be used to advertise the film ... yet he chooses the way that is sure to reduce the interest from progressive audiences. If he's doing it to save himself from some kind of threat, it must be very painful for his pride. He's a movie man, not a hero.

Imagine for a moment, the reaction of those USAmericans who used Moore's movies as their first tools to learn to read an alternate version of reality as presented by Corpomedia. One way or another it ends in disenchantment and powerlessness.

And that seems to be the curse that Obama has been chosen to spread around... Hopelessness. Lack of heroism, an obstacle to the social momentum that was betrayed into voting for change. The guy himself is a standing duck for all kind of bashing from the ultra right wing, and he knows it. It's his role, that's the script he was given. Dark skinned USAmericans see how their Messiah Obama becomes a puppet in the hands of the usual powers... and they just give up and/or go enlist to fight wars because it's the only work available and they can drain out all the anger with a trigger and live targets.

Now, Roy, you know we have our own leaders here ... with all the imperfections that the western and our points of view might find, with contradictions ... yet they are true to their people. They promised to share power, and they did. They talked straight, eye to eye, they had the people work out their constitutions.

To us, those stupid stereotypes that were used by Moore in the TV show are an insult because they are simply NOT TRUE.

To us it is relevant that our leaders are workaholics and don't read teleprompters, and you should know how dear this is to us.

Moore might look like a blob, yet he doesn't necessarily need to behave like one. We're talking about human lives here, lives that we can save, lives that Obama or Michael Moore can save even if they risk their own. We're ready to give ours to make sure this attempt to build a revolution for mankind has the chance to go further.

It's wartime, Roy. This time all the psychological weaponry will be used to soften the enemy and prepare the battlefield, and communications play a key role. Moore's showtime was a blow against a better future, one that will be extremely difficult to build if USAmericans are lied to and intentionally misinformed by Corpomedia.

In any case, let's see the movie. I'll wait till it comes out in our streets, free from copyright and cheap as any information is supposed to be.

As for Moore, it's up to him to choose his role.

Franco Munini

*** Michael Moore, instead of disseminating hoaxes about Venezuela, please, please produce true documentals about the mortal coming agony of mankind, of world fascism.



Do we see all over dictatorial ghosts, not the real ones right under our noses? 


By Franz J. T. Lee

Seeing is believing, not thinking!

One of the latest international scandals is the fairy tale of Michael Moore about President Hugo Chavez Frias of Venezuela. In an excellent article Eva Golinger set the facts and records straight:

According to her: In an interview broadcast October 9 on 'Jimmy Kimmel Live!,' the renowned and award-winning documentarian, Michael Moore lied vulgarly about his encounter with Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez during the Venice Film Festival this past September."

As part of the United States 'war of ideas,' of the big lies against Venezuela, she explains the fascist essence of this unfortunate interview: " ... in the end, this whole ridiculous tale told by Moore about his "meeting" with President Chavez is an attempt to avoid admitting before the US media that he met for three hours with the South American "dictator." And he probably liked it. Michael Moore is a most unfortunate coward."

Seeing is believing, not knowing!

Even Michael Moore has fallen victim of the ideological machinations, of placing blinkers on the mind and blindfolding the eyes with political propaganda and technological manipulation of the worst Goebbels genres.

Let us look at the fatal results of such imperialist corporate actions against Venezuela, of the destruction of global humanity, of its senses, mind and concrete utopian daydreams. Michael Moore is not an exception, he proves the golden rule of  betrayal of emancipatory endeavors.

Towards the middle of the 20th century, 'Freudomarxists,' like Eric Fromm, Wilhelm Reich and Herbert Marcuse, seriously have asked: what went wrong with the class consciousness of the metropolitan proletariat, with the working classes as a whole?

* Why did the German workers so happily vote their fascist butchers into political power?

* Why did so many global workers freely march into two world wars, into certain death, which within half a century resulted in abut 100,000,000 estimated casualties and deaths?

This was the price which humanity had to pay to rescue capitalist imperialism from a total collapse, from severe depression and recession.

Even the Marxist philosopher of hope Ernst Bloch was asking: why was it so difficult for the socialists to capture the revolutionary imagination of the European working masses?


* Why could the Third and Fourth Internationals not direct the workers toward the global class struggle?


* Why were the masses so easily abducted, convinced and destroyed by the fascists regimes?

Across the whole 20th century ... especially in the whole 'under-developed' world, including 'Soviet Russia,' 'Communist China, 'socialist Yugoslavia' and heroic Vietnam ... in spite of valiant class struggles, we could not annihilate capitalism and replace it with its direct opposite, with anti-capitalism, with scientific, philosophic socialism...

** Yes, sometimes it is necessary first to learn how and what to question. Only then we could give concrete answers, socialist praxis.

What is really left of all the valiant workers' struggles in Russia, China, Algeria, Southern Africa, Chile, Grenada, ... just to mention a few? Surely Cuba and Venezuela, and other class struggles, heavily attacked by world fascism, are hopes and results of what is really left.

Seeing with brains, 'theorizing'!

During the Hitler regime in Germany, the survivors claimed to have seen nothing, no concentration camps, no extermination of blacks, gypsies, communists or Jews. Something similar was happening in the apartheid regime, also in the gulags and in global Zionism. Also here in Venezuela, millions do not have the foggiest idea about the historic truth in which we are involved.

Only Seeing is deceiving ... Thinking is knowing!

What is worse: in the first place, because one sees with one's brain, millions, victims of a millennia old Mental Holocaust, many of us really could not, did not (still cannot) see anything beyond the capitalist status quo, the establishment. Because socialism is not en vogue, we had and still have no effective theoretical antidote against the ideological visions and vistas coming from capitalist topos ouranios. Across the centuries the infernal heat of this Moloch has scorched many of our human psi-factors, our erotic and exotic quintessence, our emancipatory powers. Blinded and blind-folded with tight consumer blinkers, we do not see our global Orwellian loony bin, the millions of surveillance cameras in London and elsewhere; we do not see the huge numbers of camps already constructed in the USA.

Yes, like Michael Moore, we see all over dictatorial ghosts, but we do not see the real ones right in front of our noses.

For whom do the church bells of St. Peter's Square toll?

Can the European workers, especially in Greece and France, still hear the crowing of the Gallic "Hahn" (Marx)?

Do they remember the brave communards who tried to storm heaven in Paris is 1870-1, at the eve of the birth of world imperialism?

Can we still venture beyond our immediate consumerist here and now, away from myopic ideology, from obsolete resistance methods which only fall on deaf corporate ears?

Also, we hear with our brains, which censure that which we are not supposed to register, for example, the hell of a noise below Los Alamos, since decades already.

Up to what are our Nobel Peace Prize winners?

Will we soon see "Pentagon Aliens" (Bill Lyne)?

What is in the air?

Do we smell a rat here in Merida, Venezuela?

Do we smell the smog, the toxic gases coming from the gray avalanche of cars, forming endless traffic jams? Do we smell capitalism?

Are we constructing fragrant socialism?

More questions yearning for praxical answers!

Do we smell the stench of the bloody Yankee boots coming from the military bases in Colombia?

Elsewhere do we smell the capitalist decay and putrefaction, the cesspools and quagmires?

No, we see nothing, we hear nothing, we smell nothing ....

Do we still feel anything?

Michael Moore, instead of disseminating hoaxes about Venezuela, please, please produce true documentals about the mortal coming agony of mankind, of world fascism.

The steady stream of lies about Venezuela

Printer-friendly versionSend to friend

As Eva Golinger points out in her books, the constant stream of lies about Venezuela and its popular President Hugo Chavez are best seen as the leading edge of an integrated strategy of destabilisation and ‘regime change’ for the socialist-oriented, oil-rich nation.

These insistent, repetitious lies do have their precedents. In 1960 the then Chilean Senator, Salvador Allende, told the Chilean Senate he had witnessed “the brutal, deliberate propaganda … day by day and minute by minute they misrepresent what has happened in Cuba”. Naturally, media channels run by large private companies could not contemplate any sympathetic view of Cuba’s socialist revolution.

However the great the danger of these constant lies about Cuba, Allende pointed out, was that they replicated preparations for the earlier US overthrow of the democratic, reformist government of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala. This 1954 coup was followed by decades of US backed dictatorships and the slaughter of more than 100,000 people in that Central American country. Allende was right. In 1961 the US launched an invasion of Cuba, but failed to back it up with US ground troops, and the intervention failed. Later on Allende himself, as the popularly elected President of Chile, faced the same ferocious media attack, before being murdered in the US backed military coup of 1973.

In the case of Venezuela, we do not need to go past the London-based Economist to see good examples of the calculated dishonesty. The Economist favours more the interests of British, European and (increasingly) Asian investors, than those of US corporations. Nevertheless, on the question of opposing a socialist government in Venezuela, there is common ground; and the level of journalistic ethics is similar.

Let’s look at their recent article ‘Venezuela’s foreign policy: dreams of a different world’, delicately subtitled ‘Arms and the Tyrants’ (The Economist, September 19 2009: 52). In a short article they manage to cram in at least four important lies, along with a couple of incidental ones.

First, it is said that President Chavez, in a world tour which included arms purchases from Russia, “got what he seemed to be seeking all along: the attention of the United States”. US Secretary of State Hilary Clinton is reported as being “worried” that Venezuela’s weapons purchases “might trigger an ‘arms race’ and … are ‘serious challenge to stability’”.

The advantage of this US-centred view of the world (‘getting the attention of the US’ as a prime aim) is that it dispenses with the need to explain actual motivations. The article makes no mention of the deployment of the US Fourth Fleet off the coast of Venezuela, and downplays to a much later paragraph reference to the Obama Administration’s build up of military bases in neighbouring Colombia. No mention that the US, despite its backing for the coup against Chavez in 2002, might be a threat to Venezuelan democracy. By these devices, The Economist presents Venezuela’s seeking weapons for self defence as the only identified threat to regional stability. The threat posed by US projection of imperial power into the South American continent is not mentioned.

Second, the Chavez world tour of ‘arms and the tyrants’ is presented as a threat to the US. The “top foreign policy” of Chavez is said to be “forging an anti-American political alliance with Iran, Syria, Belarus and Russia”. His overall aim is said to be “to stir up troubles for the United States in many places at once”. Later on it is said that some of the arms purchases by Chavez “seem to be a hasty response to an agreement last month under which Colombia gave the United States facilities at seven bases for anti-drug operations”.

However no sensible observer believes seven US military bases in Colombia have anything do with ‘anti-drug operations’. To the contrary, drug cultivation and wholesale trafficking around the world – from Vietnam to Afghanistan to Colombia – has always expanded with the presence of the US military. Similarly, it is absurd to call Venezuela’s response to US military threats ‘hasty’, given that over the last century the US has intervened militarily in *every* country in Latin America (some of them several times), including in Venezuela under Chavez.

The need for Chavez and his government to build alternative investment and financial relationships is made clear by the undeniable and relentless history of US aggression against independent governments in Latin America and more recently by the US-centred financial collapse. His recent visits included countries other than those mentioned, including China.

Venezuela’s foreign policy “top priority” is far from “anti-American”. It has been to build an alliance of sovereign countries in the Americas called ALBA. There are thirty-five countries in the Americas - only US-centric views equate “American” with the USA. Mexico City’s main airport makes this point, but indicating the hall for flights to ‘the United States of North America’.

The third major lie of the article concerns Unasur, the recently created Union of South American governments, of which Venezuela is a member. The Economist asserts “[Chavez] once again failed to obtain an explicit condemnation of Colombia’s [military] base agreement with the United States from Unasur”.

It is true there was not unanimity at Unasur. Colombia asserted its right to develop new military bases and refused to provide information on them to Unasur. True also that Hilary Clinton used Venezuela’s pending arms purchase from Russia (note that the US itself had refused to resupply parts for the Venezuelan military) to deflect attention from the new US bases.

Yet most South American countries – including non-ALBA members Brazil, Argentina and Chile – spoke out strongly against the US build up in Colombia. The nine-member ALBA group went on to say they reject “the installation of military bases of the United States in Latin America and the Caribbean .. [because they] endanger the peace, threaten democracy and facilitate the hegemonic interference” of the US in the region’s affairs. Chavez is hardly ‘failing’ in his diplomacy. It is the Colombian regime of Alvaro Uribe that has become increasingly isolated amongst its neighbours.

Some other incidental lies adorn The Economist’s article. The magazine criticises Chavez for recognising Abkhazia and South Ossetia, claiming that these two states “were carved from Georgia last year by Russian troops”. In fact, after the fragmentation of the Soviet Union, Abkhazia and South Ossetia had never been effectively incorporated into Georgia. It was the Georgian regime’s attempt (urged on by the US) to forcibly incorporate them into Georgia (and thus also NATO) that was roundly defeated in 2008, with Russian assistance.

The article also claims that Venezuela’s generosity in supplying discount oil and gas to developing countries occurs as “Venezuela’s refineries are struggling to supply the local market”. This is false and absurd. Venezuela has massive refinery capacity and fuel in Venezuela remains by far the cheapest in the Americas.

The fourth big lie is saved up to the end, and follows on that grand tradition of the great human rights abusers accusing others to deflect attention from themselves. Chavez is said to be “cultivating” regimes that are characterised by “rigged elections, media censorship, the criminalisation of dissent and leaders for life”. Not a touch of irony, as the death squads in Colombia murder trade unionists and civil leaders unchecked, as the Obama Administration pussyfoots around the coup regime in Honduras (which deposed a Chavez ally), as election fraud and bloody war rages in Afghanistan and as the US launches missile attacks on Pakistan.

It can be tedious to document such lies. They are so common and, no sooner is one lot done than the next day’s lies appear – if not in The Economist then in the Washington Post, The Australian or The Times. These monopolies count on the vulnerable, who do not have alternate sources of information, who do not read history and are able to be swayed by crude and often racist agitation.

In the bigger picture, this is a delegitimising process, organised by the private media monopolies which, in their hatred for the sort of popular democracy led by Chavez (as also in the past by Allende), are preparing the ground for coups, wars of intervention and conquest. It has been done before and – while these monopolies remain unchecked – it will be done again.


Venezuela is no tyranny

Printer-friendly versionSend to friend

As Latin Americans witness the return of dictatorship – with Honduras suffering political executions, widespread repression and condemnation from human rights organisations about curtailing of press freedoms – it seems a strange time for the media to repeat opposition allegations that Venezuela is becoming a tyranny.

Venezuela is far from the "dictatorship which has a facade of democracy" described by General Raúl Baduel, who has been accused of corruption. What kind of tyranny oversees a 70% increase of participation in presidential elections, as Chávez has, or the government holding 13 free and fair elections in 10 years?

Of course, Venezuelan society and democracy is imperfect. One example is that corruption remains a very real problem. Opponents have tried to use this issue to disparage the government, though it pre-dates the Chávez era. It is therefore ironic that when measures are taken to tackle it, as is the case in legal prosecutions, these are cited as examples of a clampdown on political freedoms. Many Chávez-supporting politicians are under investigation and it paints a distorted picture to focus only on prosecutions against those opposed to Chávez.

Taking the two most prominent cases of those aligned with the opposition. With Baduel, the military prosecutors investigating the disappearance of more than $18.6m in 2006 and 2007 while he was minister of defence have decided to prosecute. He has had all the rights to a defence lawyer and transparent trial, yet so far his defence has not produced any evidence to counter the charges of corruption.

Manuel Rosales, infamously a signatory to the decree backing the 2002 military coup against Chávez, is one of the most notorious cases. He has allegedly been unable to show the source of millions of dollars in assets both in Venezuela and abroad. He fled to Peru and requested political asylum, but being given asylum by Peru is not proof of innocence. Recently Bolivia nearly broke diplomatic relations with Peru for granting asylum to three ministers from a previous government charged with responsibility for the October 2003 massacre in which 67 people were killed by the Bolivian army.

What cannot be said of Venezuela is that the right to protest is threatened. This year alone, the opposition have staged dozens of marches free from state harassment. On numerous occasions opponents and marchers have been invited to address the nation from the National Assembly.

In contrast, it was only 20 years ago that protests were met by brutal repression in Venezuela, with the Caracazo massacre by state security forces leaving 276 dead according to official figures and up to 3,000, according to claims, once mass graves were uncovered.

The opposition's hostile views of the Chávez government dominate the Venezuelan media. But that is not the reason why some radio stations were recently closed. These were operating illegally without proper licences and continued to refuse to comply with the law. More than 200 radio stations, most of which identify with the opposition, that were also operating irregularly but did renew their franchises continue to operate freely.

Respect for democracy is intrinsic to the particular model being followed by the Chávez government. It does not resort to violence – it wins elections. In contrast, it is noteworthy that the notable elements of the Venezuelan opposition have broadly sympathised with the illegal de facto government of Micheletti in Honduras. Maybe in Honduras we have a serious glimpse of what "democracy" would have been like in Venezuela had its violent attempts to overthrow Chávez been successful?


El ‘descubrimiento’ de América por Cristóbal Colón: ¿La mentira más grande de todos los tiempos?

El ‘descubrimiento’ de América por Cristóbal Colón: ¿La mentira más grande de todos los tiempos?


Por Franz J. T. Lee

“¡Como mienten, hombre ... el tiempo mas largo que una cuerda!”
Sabio dicho caribeño.

El lunes, 12 de octubre de 2009, en toda la América al igual que en otros lugares una vez mas celebraremos nuestro “Día de la Raza”. Salvo en Venezuela, Cuba y algunos de los países del ALBA, como Bolivia, como de costumbre, estaremos honrando el día de nuestro “descubrimiento” por Cristóbal Colón, por la colonización europea, por la Inquisición española, el catolicismo romano, la civilización, la cultura y la burguesía emergente. Como ya sabemos, Venezuela ha declarado el 12 de octubre oficialmente como el Día de la Resistencia Indígena.

En Asia, África, América, Oceanía y el Caribe, en tiempos precolombinos, por muchos historiadores y filósofos europeos fuimos considerados como nada, como indios, ojos rasgados, pieles rojas, cafres, peones, paganos y bárbaros. Sin duda, estas “cosas” no son capaces de descubrir América. Sin duda, “los dictadores del mal” en Venezuela no pueden llegar a las estrellas y descubrir a “Jayú”, un pequeño planeta que gira a las afueras de nuestro sistema solar, más allá de Plutón.

Entonces nos preguntamos: ¿Es verdad que durante la Edad Oscura europea, sólo estuvimos vegetando como monos y babuinos hambrientos fuera de la historia?

Antes de comentar sobre el “re-descubrimiento” de América por Colón, vamos a iluminar brevemente el contexto histórico de la función de las grandes mentiras.

En el pasado, ¿de verdad no fuimos nosotros, los africanos y árabes, quienes construimos los buques de largo alcance? ¿No fuimos nosotros quienes dirigimos una flota completa a través de los océanos? ¿O es que primero tuvimos que esperar a Enrique el Grande para que nos enseñara a navegar?

A finales del siglo 15, el Herrenvolk, la raza superior, el pueblo elegido y sus ideólogos estaban convencidos de que nosotros, los aborígenes, los vimos llegar, comenzamos a adorar a sus dioses blancos, luego bajamos de los árboles y comenzamos a caminar en postura recta. Bueno, evidentemente esta es una de las mentiras más grandes jamás inventadas por las clases dominantes.

Para nosotros, los ‘descubrimientos’ de Colón, como se les enseñan en todo el mundo a los inocentes niños de la escuela (que la tierra era redonda y que un “Nuevo Mundo” existe fuera de Europa), siguen siendo unas de las mentiras más espeluznantes de todos los tiempos. Los científicos de la Grecia antigua y los escandinavos de la Edad Media, que comerciaban con Islandia, Nueva Escocia y Groenlandia, respectivamente, ya sabían mucho acerca de todas estas “novedades”. Esta gran mentira sobre Colón se convirtió en un dogma ideológico racista, en una verdad absoluta lógica formal, para celebrar la superioridad de la “raza” europea.

Obviamente, en cada época, no sólo las ideas dominantes son las ideas de las clases dominantes, sino también las grandes mentiras dominantes son las mentiras de las grandes clases mentirosas. Estas grandes mentiras dominantes, incrustadas en la ‘desnaturalización’, ‘dissocialización’, la religión, la educación, la cultura y la ideología, impregnan todos los estratos y las estructuras sociales del capitalismo, e inundan todos los ámbitos de la sociedad de clases. Las mentiras, los mitos, los dogmas y las “verdades absolutas”, difundidas por los medios de comunicación, la propaganda, los sermones, las canciones, la música, las oraciones y la publicidad, se encargan ya desde hace siglos del embellecimiento de la explotación económica sin escrúpulos del trabajador físico, de la naturaleza y la sociedad, por el capital, en otras palabras, por las relaciones de clase entre amos y esclavos.

Otra gran mentira religiosa: Sólo los pobres entrarán en el ‘reino’ de los cielos; por lo tanto: mi gente, por favor, ¡no laven demasiados platos, como una vez lo hizo Rockefeller, porque podrían terminar como multimillonarios asándose en el fuego eterno del infierno!

Mentiras y más mentiras en todas partes ... ¡para ocultar los crímenes cardenales capitalistas! Hoy en día, como lo predijeron Shakespeare y Orwell: La verdad se convierte en mentira, la libertad en esclavitud, la guerra en Paz. La ignorancia se convierte en gloria y ser sabio es una locura.

La dominación de las clases trabajadoras ha sido glorificada políticamente por todo tipo de cuentos de hadas. Estos van desde el régimen del apartheid piatónico de los reyes filósofos con corazón de oro, que alimentan el “ Bien Mayor “, hasta la “ciudad de Dios” de San Agustín y los Estados por gracia de Dios. La verdad histórica real sobre el “Príncipe” (Maquiavelo), el “Leviatán” (Hobbes), el “Führer” (Hitler) y el “Hermano Mayor” (Orwell) no la vamos a encontrar en Fox News, CNN o en las agencias noticiosas del Imperio de Murdoch. Hicieron su trabajo de manera tan perfecta, que incluso si ahora se publicaría la verdad y se desenmascararía a todas las grandes mentiras políticas de la actualidad, entonces nadie creería en algo malo en cuanto a la política exterior de los Estados Unidos.

Los buenos pastores, los hombres de Dios y los hombres-dioses son incapaces de decir grandes mentiras a su rebaño, sólo los “terroristas” y los “comunistas” son capaces de semejantes crímenes diabólicos. El Estado defiende la “democracia”, es decir, el cristianismo, la civilización, la cultura y la paz mundial en el Oriente Próximo, Medio y Lejano. Dondequiera que ande el dólar, ¡él y nosotros siempre confiamos en Dios!

A través de los siglos, se fabricaron toda una galaxia de grandes mentiras: los africanos negros “no tienen alma” (Montesquieu); ellos “no sirven para el uso ni para el abuso de la filosofía” (Voltaire). Según Hegel, África ni siquiera aparece en la historia del mundo. Por supuesto, de acuerdo con la arrogancia racista europea, tales “bárbaros”, o como también se les denomina, la “carga del hombre blanco”, los árabes y africanos, como lo eran Avicena, Averroes, Ibn Khaldoun, jamás pueden desarrollar algo como las ciencias naturales y sociales; históricamente, no pueden “descubrir” nada, y menos aún América. En el ámbito del racismo hay toneladas de grandes mentiras que se inventaron acerca de los “hijos de Ham”, sobre los “cafres” y “recogelatas”. Millones de personas creen en estas mentiras racistas y fascistas. Estas grandes falsedades incluso infiltraron el Talmud de Babilonia, la Santa Biblia, el apartheid, el sionismo, el fascismo, la “democracia” y el  “nacional-socialismo”. ¿Quién iba a dudar de tan grandes “verdades” procedentes de las Sagradas Escrituras, según lo revelado por los grandes hombres?

En el ámbito militar al igual que en la acumulación del capital, las grandes mentiras ponen en marcha los grandes negocios, las grandes guerras mundiales, y los trabajadores, los millones de corderos engañados felizmente marchan hacia su matadero, a la muerte segura. El “Reichstagsbrand” (incendio del parlamento alemán nazi) producido por los propios nazis, las grandes mentiras acerca de “Pearl Harbor” y el “9 / 11” sólo son algunas de las más trágicas y detestables fabricaciones de la clase dominante.

Durante la “guerra fría”, incluso la Unión Soviética utilizó la estrategia de la Gran Mentira durante la carrera armamentista del capitalismo para adquirir la hegemonía mundial. Se le dijo al mundo que Yuri Gargarin fue el primer hombre en el espacio. Hasta hoy muchos todavía creen en este cuento de hadas. La verdad del asunto es que fue Sergei Vladimir Ilyushin júnior, que voló alrededor de la tierra unos días antes de Yuri Gargarin, y que se estrelló en China y tuvo la suerte de ser devuelto vivo a la Unión Soviética. En la carrera armamentista, que también se extendió hacia la luna, esto no hubiera sido una propaganda favorable para la Unión Soviética.

Los astronautas rusos también han descubierto la base militar estadounidense secreta ‘Área 51’, cerca de Paradise Ranch en el desierto de Nevada. Muchos empezaron a dudar de que Neil Armstrong de verdad dio esos brincos en la luna, todo al estilo del héroe vaquero Hopalong Cassidy. La zona parece un paisaje lunar, un fondo perfecto para que el cine de Hollywood filmara sagas como aquella de la luna de miel.

Sin embargo, en un breve comentario, es imposible verificar todos estos extraños acontecimientos. Esto sólo es alimento importante para el pensamiento, para tomar las armas contra un mar de mentiras imperialistas, para diferenciar entre la virtualidad y la realidad.

Ahora veamos este gran evento histórico: El Viejo Mundo descubre el Nuevo Mundo.

Como ha explicado el escritor africano-caribeño, Richard B. Moore, en su libro, “La Importancia de la Historia Africana”, los “estudiosos” europeos afirmando el imperialismo, en muchos casos simplemente han falsificado la historia africana.

Historiadores guyaneses como Walter Rodney e Ivan Van Sertima nos han dado material científico suficiente como para al menos dudar de las versiones mentirosas sobre el “descubrimiento” de América. En el mejor de los casos la aventura de Colón provocó un ‘re-descubrimiento’ de tercer grado, la colonización de América, esta última no representa un “descubrimiento” sino la acumulación de capital, la historia moderna.

Hay muchas afirmaciones con referencia al descubrimiento de América, pero ninguna sobre el descubrimiento y la colonización de Europa por parte de América. Según sagas del norte de Europa, parece que la presencia noruega precolombina en América del Norte era una realidad.

Debido a que estos hechos para nosotros son prácticamente desconocidos, me permito citar algunos pasajes pertinentes de la excelente obra “El Descubrimiento Nórdico de América”, por A. M. Reeves, et al:

“Aquí es conveniente agregar que los escandinavos fueron los descubridores de la navegación pelágica. Me permito afirmar con todo el énfasis de que soy capaz de comprimir en tantas palabras, que la navegación de los océanos fue descubierta por los antiguos vikingos nórdicos. Antes de ellos, la única navegación conocida era la navegación de costa. Los normandos eran excelentes constructores de barcos y sabían cómo calcular el tiempo mediante el sol, la luna y las estrellas, y en cada historia del mundo, y en cada enciclopedia yo hubiese afirmado visiblemente el hecho de que la navegación pelágica fue descubierta por los normandos. 1)

¿Entonces no surge la duda, de que en la Edad Media, o incluso antes, los africanos del norte y occidente científicamente no hubiesen podido hacer lo mismo?

Sin embargo, según esta obra, los normandos visitaron a América del Norte ya en 1347, “145 años antes del descubrimiento de Colón”.

¿Por qué se terminaron las relaciones comerciales noruego-norteamericanos?

“La última expedición mencionada en las sagas fue en 1347, 145 años antes del descubrimiento de Colón. En ese año se afirma que un buque procedía de Markland (Nueva Escocia) a Islandia con un cargamento de madera. ... Pero esto, como verá el lector, nos lleva hasta una época memorable en la historia europea. Nos lleva al brote de la terrible plaga negra, o muerte negra”. 2)

Parece una exageración, sin embargo, hay reivindicaciones históricas de que el pueblo egipcio “Nubian Kemmiu llegó a las Américas alrededor de 1200 a.C.”. 3)

Basado en el material de investigación de numerables historiadores de renombre en el mundo, en un artículo, “La presencia africana precolombina en las Américas”, publicado el 16 de mayo de 2006 por Mathaba.Net, dijimos:

“Existe evidencia histórica definida que entre los años 1307 y 1312 de nuestra era flotas Mandingas de África Occidental habían navegado a América y luego habían regresado a África. En el año 1324 de nuestra era el famoso emperador Mandinga de Malí, Mansa Kankan Musa I, en su camino a La Meca, hizo escala en El Cairo y fue entrevistado por el eminente historiador islámico del siglo XIV, Al-Umars, a quien el emperador le relató su subida al “poder” y que “sus predecesores habían lanzado dos expediciones desde el África Occidental para descubrir los límites del Océano Atlántico”.” 4)

Vamos a escuchar más de los informes del eminente historiador islámico del siglo 14, Al-Umars:

“Le pregunté al Sultán Musa cómo fue que llegó el poder a sus manos ... . (Él contestó:) ... ‘Pertenecemos a una casa que transmite el poder de manera hereditaria ... el gobernante que me precedió no creyó que era imposible descubrir los límites del mar circunvecino. Él quería descubrir y persistió en sus planes. Él tenía alrededor de 200 naves equipadas y las llenó de hombres, y el mismo número de naves llenas de oro, agua y suministros en cantidades suficientes para durar por años. “ 5)

Muchos “estudiosos” europeos y norteamericanos no consideran tales pruebas como “científicamente correctas”. Sobre todo acusaron a Ivan van Sertima de lo siguiente:

“La obra de Van Sertima ha sido criticada por los académicos de haber hecho afirmaciones afro centristas infundadas. Un artículo del “Journal of Current Anthropology” de 1997, criticó en detalle muchos elementos del libro de 1976 de Van Sertima, “They Came Before Columbus” (Llegaron antes de Colón). El libro aún no había recibido una previa revisión profunda académica profesional. Señalaron que al afirmar los orígenes africanos de la cultura olmeca prehistórica (en la México actual), Van Sertima había ignorado el trabajo de los investigadores de América Central. Dijeron que no se han encontrado pruebas de una influencia o presencia africana prehistórica en excavaciones arqueológicas controladas en el Nuevo Mundo.” 6)

Sin embargo, dejemos que Al-Umars nos informe acerca de la gran verdad:

“Él les dijo a los comandantes que sólo regresaran cuando hubieran alcanzado los extremos del océano o cuando hubieran agotado su comida y su agua. Ellos partieron ... Finalmente, reapareció un solo barco y le preguntamos a su capitán acerca de su aventura. ““

Él le contó al Sultán acerca de su largo viaje y cómo fue que finalmente entraron en algo semejante a un río con violentas corrientes. Él era el último de la fila y vio cómo las otras naves desaparecían. Él regresó para contar su historia.

Sin embargo, “ ‘el emperador no quiso creerle y equipó alrededor de 2000 navíos más y me confirió el poder y partí con su compañera y los demás al océano. Esa fue la última vez que lo ví a él y a los otros ...” 7)

La solución a este enigma histórico se ubica en la biblioteca del museo del Vaticano, es allí donde podríamos encontrar la evidencia histórica, los gráficos y los cálculos que pudieran comprobar que Colón sabía con precisión a dónde iba y cómo regresar a Europa, gracias al conocimiento científico y filosófico africano y árabe.

La ironía de la historia, los extraños caminos de la verdad: doscientos años después de la visita de Musa I de la Meca, Cristóbal Colón, en sus “Diarios” personalmente testificó acerca de la presencia de las expediciones de los Mandinga a las Américas.

Según el “New African”, Colón escribió que “las flotas mercantes de África Occidental periódicamente partían de la costa de Guinea y navegaban a la América Meridional con oro y otras mercancías; (los Mandinga) introdujeron el arte de la aleación del oro. ... Los indios trajeron pañuelos de algodón, confeccionados muy simétricamente y trabajados en colores semejantes a aquellos que se traen de Guinea, de los ríos de Sierra Leona y sin diferencia alguna... Los Mandinga comerciaron con oro y tela llamada “almaizar”... “.

Fraile Bartolomé de las Casas conservó fragmentos y citas del “Diario” de Colón para la posteridad; si lo siguiente es genuino, entonces acabamos de describir uno de los engaños más grandes lanzado contra África y América, y tenemos que estudiar y corregir urgentemente nuestra historia.

Por lo tanto, en conclusión, fue Cristóbal Colón mismo quien declaró que los Mandinga habían llegado a América mucho antes que él. 8)


2) ibid.
3) Véase: NEW AFRICAN (Londres), “They Came Before Columbus”, enero, 2001, N° 392, páginas 16-20
5) ibid.
7) Las siguientes citas son del artículo publicado en
Artículo en Aporrea sobre Cristóbal Colón

Apreciado compatriota Franz:  Lee escribo con respecto a su excelente artículo sobre las mentiras vertidas por la burguesía, que a fuerza de aceptarlas se convierten en una aparente verdad, que nadie cuestiona.  Lo del "descubrimiento" que no fué tal, porque  Abya Yala estaba ahí desde la formación del Planeta, fué en realidad un tropezón, sirvió para que una Europa empobrecida por guerras, coflictos, pestes, religión y reyes, sin casi recursos naturales, renaciera de sus ruinas y construyeran sus ciudades, infraestructura y comercio sobre un charco de sangre, producto de un genocidio atroz y canalla, que disfrazaron como la catequización de los idólatras diábolicos que supuestamente, eran los habitantes de estas tierras.  Otra fuente de gran riqueza para estos asesinos, fueron los esclavos que capturaban en Africa.  Ahora que el saqueo de Abya Yala está dificultoso, se han apoderado de Africa, junto a los gringos y la están saqueando, mientras los pobres, cuya pobreza es causada por ese saqueo, son rechazados en la "civilización europea" y tratados como parias.  Recordemos a Bertrand Aristide quien declaró que Francia le debía a Haití miles de millones de dólares, por el oro que se llevaron, hasta secar las minas.  Al poco tiempo ´fué secuestrado y llevado a Surafrica por los gringos y los franceses. Es increible que la corona inglesa exhiba sus joyas, producto de robo, pillaje, saqueo y crimen, para que sea "admirada" su riqueza por todos.  Si un ladrón hiciera eso, sería un escándalo moral, pero estas familias de delincuentes y asesinos profesionales, de siglos de existencia, lo hacen impunemente y con orgullo de casta.  Sobre lo de la Luna y la supuesta caminata del gringo, recuerdo que cuando eso sucedía, un amigo mío, muy de izquierda, comunista de la línea stalinista, me aseguraba que era una película hecha en Hollywood.  Como era tan, pero tan antiusamericano, yo no le creí, pero nunca olvidé las conversaciones que sostuvimos.  Con el tiempo, siempre me preguntaba por qué no volvían a la Luna e instalaban una base, para empezar a explorar y me sorprendí cuando la base la construyeron en el espacio, donde están trabajando.  Ahora acaban de hacer explotar en la superficie lunar, dos artefactos para recoger polvo y averiguar si hay agua, cuando lo más facil hubiese sido construir la base y estudiar directamente el suelo lunar.  Estoy convencida que esa tal "caminata lunar" fué otra mentira, pero me pregunto, ¿por qué los rusos no hablaron?  Con respecto al ataque a las torres de comercio, estoy convencida de que fué planeado por el gobierno gringo para poder utilizar otra gran mentira, como fué la de las famosas armas de destrucción masiva en Irak.  Ahora están tratando de montar otra mentira sobre Iran, cuyo gobierno,  no quiere que inspeccionen sus instalaciones, porque servirían como espionaje comodo y completo para los israelitas.  Esta es una opinión personal, claro, pero con expertos en mentir como son los gringos y los eurogringos, como yo los llamo, todo es posible.  Reciba mi aprecio y saludos.  Mirtila.

Especatcular articulo de opinion, es un tratado de hechos reales que deben ser debidamente analizados a fin de corregir el curso de una historia errada y desviada de su curso natural. ,. De mi parte, te felicito y agradezco si me lo puedes enviar por esta misma via para darle amplia difusion especialmente entre los vendepatria que se resisten a pisar tierra, ni siquiera en memoria de su supuesto "descubridor" Colon, . Yo no puedo imprimirlo porque mi compu esta malisima, pero prometo darle rosca hasta cansarme,
un cordial saludo Franz, y feliz dia DE LA RESISTENCIA INDIGENA!!

Cordialmente, mac, asidua lectora de aporrea, el medio de la gente honesta y estudiada.

Antonio Carrillo
Sr. Franz J. T. Lee
Reciba mis respetos y permitame darle mis felicitaciones por ese excelente trabajo, por demás interesante y apasionante.
Nunca me cayó bien ese tal Colón, hay que quitarle la máscara así esté bien muerto, pero por ahi andan otros igual a él.
Con respecto a la llegada del hombre a la luna, siempre me pregunté si no hay ley de gravedad, como clavaron la banderita de los Estados Unidos? como había  aire para que la misma ondeara en el espacio lunar?.
Ahora resulta que consiguieron agua en la luna?   Lecciones así se necesitan para seguir alumbrando el camino de la verdad.
No cree que ya es suficiente para que nos sigan viendo cara de pozeta
Atte.  Norma Rivas
Muy estimados Franz, Jutta y su equipo de trabajo!!
nuevamente unas lineas para agradacerles altamente el gentil envio de este interesante material de estudio, analisis e investigacion sobre todas esas verdades pertinentes a la Historia autèntica y no la distorsionada por los intereses creados y poderes fàcticos, quienes  sin duda son la analogia del mismo anticristo biblico, es la "iniquidad operante", como le llama san pablo en su Epistola a los Tesalonicenses!! 
Sin tener el chance  y la inquietud de enterarnos de estas verdades historicas, resultaria labor ardua el poder formarse una opinion ajustada a la realidad, asi que le voy a dar amplia difusion al material enviado,.
De la misma manera, quedo a sus ordenes para recibir toda la informaciòn que ustedes tengan a bien hacerme llegar.
Soy de profesion Internacionalista,  UCV, en retiro involuntario desde hace muchos años, muy excluida pero nor ello menos interesada en todo lo que se refiera a nuestro acontecer nacional y global.
Aprovecho para enviar un cordial saludo y mi reconocimeinto a esa valiente ciudadana  venezolana-americana que es Eva Golinger, profesional  muy preparada y cuyo trabajo ha sido para mi muy didactico y esclarecedor,.  Se que los escualidos la odian y subestiman, por algo serà!! 
Desde mi destierro en Caraballeda,
Maria Antonieta carrillo M  cel 0416-4738502

Estimadas y estimados amgias, amigos, camaradas:

Gracias por sus comentarios apreciados. Ciertamente, nuestra lucha por la emancipación humana comienza, persevera y termina con otro tipo de 'descubrimiento': el de la verdad histórica y de la historia verdadera. Un saludo cordial a todos.

Sunday, 11 October 2009
Columbus' 'discovery' of America: the greatest hoax of all times?
Columbus' 'discovery' of America: the greatest hoax of all times?

By Franz J. T. Lee

"How dey ken lie, man ... time longer dan rope!"
Wise Caribbean saying.

Across America and elsewhere, on Monday, October 12, 2009, we will again be celebrating "Columbus Day", our "Día de la Raza". Except in Venezuela, Cuba and some of the ALBA countries, like Bolivia, as usual we will be honoring the day of our 'discovery' by Cristobal Colon, by European colonization, by the Spanish Inquisition, Roman Catholicism, civilization, culture and the emerging bourgeoisie. As we should know, Venezuela has declared October 12 officially as the Day of Indigenous Resistance. In Asia, Africa, America, Oceania and the Caribbean, with reference to 'pre-Columbian times', many racist European politicians, philosophers and historians have considered us as things next to nothing, that is, as natives, slit eyes, red skins, kaffirs, coolies, pagans and barbarians. Surely, such things cannot discover America. Surely, 'evil dictators' in Venezuela cannot reach out for the stars and 'Latinos' cannot discover "Jayú," a small planet revolving at the outskirts of our solar system, beyond Pluto.

During the European Dark Ages, were we really just vegetating like starving monkeys and baboons outside history?

Before we comment on Columbus' "rediscovery" of America, let us briefly highlight the historic context, the function of such Big Lies!

In the past, could we, Africans and Arabs, really not construct powerful ships? Not direct a fleet across the oceans? Or had  we to wait for Henry to teach us how to navigate?

The Herrenvolk, the master race, the chosen people and their ideologues were (and still are) convinced of the following at the end of the 15th century: that we saw the white (rather pink) men  coming, began to worship these pale-faced  gods, then we jumped down from the trees, fell on our fours, and with their aid, at last, finally we  began to walk in upward gait. This is one of the biggest lies ever told by ruling class man.

As taught worldwide to the innocent school children, for us, the 'discoveries' of Columbus (that the earth was round and that a 'New World' existed outside Europe) are rated by us as the greatest hoaxes of all times. The ancient Greek scientists and the Middle Age Norsemen, who traded with Iceland, Nova Scotia and Greenland, respectively, knew very much about 'America' already. This Big Lie about Columbus, as a political and psychological strategy, over the centuries, became a racist ideological dogma, a formal logical 'absolute truth', to celebrate global European 'race' superiority. This is the alienating essence of all the busts and statues of Columbus across the globe and of the "Day of the Race"!

Obviously, in every epoch, not only are the ruling ideas the ideas of the ruling classes, also the ruling big lies are the lies of Big Brother, of the big lying classes. These big ruling class lies, embedded in 'de-naturalization', 'dis-socialization', religion, education, culture and ideology pervade all capitalist social fibers, strata and structures and permeate all walks of class society. The hoaxes, myths, dogmas and absolute 'truths', disseminated by mass media, propaganda, sermons, songs, music, prayers and advertisements, already across centuries are beautifying the unscrupulous economic exploitation of labor forces, nature and society, by capital, in a nut shell, by global master and slave class relations.

Another religious Big Lie is very simple: Only the poor will enter the 'kingdom' of heaven; hence: folks, please, do not wash too many plates, like Rockefeller once, you could end up as a billionaire and later would be roasting in eternal hell fire!

Lies, lies, everywhere ... to veil capitalist cardinal crimes!

Nowadays, as Shakespeare and Orwell predicted: Truth becomes a Lie, Freedom becomes Slavery, War becomes Peace, Ignorance becomes Bliss and it is folly to become wise. What this all has to do with discovering America, we will see later.

Politically, domination of the working classes has been glorified by all kinds of big promises. These range from the Platonic apartheid rule of philosopher kings with golden hearts, who nurture the 'Highest Good', to Augustine's 'City of God', to States by the grace of God. The real historic truth about the 'Prince' (Maquiavelli), the 'Leviathan' (Hobbes), the 'Fuehrer' (Hitler) and 'Big Brother' (Orwell) we will not find in the 'Breaking News' of Fox News, CNN or in the news agencies of the Murdoch Empire. Even if they would publish the truth now and unmask all the current big political lies, ... they have done their job so perfectly ... nobody would believe in any wrongs of United States foreign policy.

Good shepherds, god-men and men-gods, are incapable of telling big lies to their flock, only "terrorists" and "commies" are capable of such diabolical crimes. Our State defends Christianity, civilization, culture and world peace in the Near, Middle and Far East.

Wherever our dollar and our army go, they, like all of us, "In God We Trust!"

Across the ages, a galaxy of Big Lies were fabricated: black Africans "have no souls" (Montesquieu); they "neither serve for the use nor for the abuse of philosophy" (Voltaire). According to Hegel, Africa does not even appear in world history. Of course, according to European racist arrogance, such 'barbarians', Arabs and Africans like Avicenna, Averroes and Ibn Khaldoun, the "white man's burden", cannot develop natural and social sciences; historically they cannot 'discover' anything, least of all America. In the ambit of racism tons of Big Lies are being told about the 'children of Ham', about the 'Kaffirs' and 'Coolies'. Millions, even innocently, out of ignorance,  believe in these racist, fascist diatribes. Among other avenues, these big untruths  infiltrated the Talmud of Babylonia, the Holy Bible, Apartheid, Zionism, Fascism, 'Democracy' and 'National Socialism'. Who would doubt such big 'truths' coming from the Holy Scriptures, as revealed by Great Men?

In the military spheres, in capital accumulation, big lies launch big business, big world wars, and the workers, the millions of bamboozled lambs happily march towards the slaughter house, to certain death. The 'Reichtagsbrand' caused by the Nazis themselves, the big lies about 'Pearl Harbor' and '9/11' are just among the most tragic, detestable machinations of recent ruling class hoaxes.
During the 'Cold War', in the Stalin epoch, even the Soviet Union used the Big Lie strategy, especially during the capitalist 'arms race' campaigns to win world hegemony. The world was told that Yuri Gagarin was the first man in space. Till today many still believe in this story. The truth of the matter is that it was
Sergei Vladimir Ilyushin junior, who flew around the earth a few days before Yuri Gagarin, and who crashed in China and was lucky to be returned to the Soviet Union alive. In the arms race to the moon, this mishap would not have been favorable propaganda for the Soviet Union. Gagarin upgraded the then Soviet inferiority complexes. Russian and even American astronauts have also discovered the United States secret military base 'Area 51', near Paradise Ranch in the Nevada Desert. Many began to doubt that Neil Armstrong ever jumped around on the Moon like the cowboy hero Hopalong Cassidy. The area in the desert looks like a moon landscape, a perfect background for Hollywood to film honeymoon sagas.

However, in a short commentary it is impossible to verify all these strange theories and events. To celebrate 'Columbus Day' consciously, this is just urgent food for thought, to take up arms against an avalanche of new hoaxes, a sea of imperialist lies, that is, to learn to differentiate between virtuality and reality.

Now let us look at the big 'transhistoric event: The Old World discovers the New World! Generally, historians must wait about 50 years to study classified material about big lies, like '9/11', that is, our historians have to guess, to use 'trial and error' methods to discover the truth about  capital crimes against humanity. The 'rediscovery' of America by Columbus still will necessitate another 500 years to be verified scientifically.

As the African-Caribbean writer, Richard B. Moore, in his book "The Significance of African History" has explained, European "scholars", affirming the imperialist lies, in many cases have simply  falsified African history. Guyanese historians like Walter Rodney and Ivan van Sertima have supplied us with sufficient scientific materials, at least, to doubt the Big Lie versions about the Columbus 'discovery' of America. At best, the joint venture and adventure of Columbus brought about a third grade 're-discovery', the colonization of America, the latter is not a 'discovery', it was creating the world market, acceleration of the accumulation of capital, founding modern history.

There are many claims with reference to who discovered America but none about  indigenous America discovering and colonizing Europe. According to North European sagas, it seems that Norwegian pre-Columbian presence in Northern America was a reality. Well, we could consider these possible discoveries, after all, they originated in Northern Europe, and not in the ancient Arab-African University of Timbuktu, in the Mali civilization, the ancient El Dorado of Africa.

Because these facts are practically unknown to us, allow me to quote some relevant passages from the excellent work  'The Norse Discovery of America', by A.M Reeves, et al:

"Here it is proper to add that the Norsemen were the discoverers of pelagic navigation. Let me here state with all the emphasis that I am able to compress into so many words, that the navigation of the ocean was discovered by the old Norse Vikings. Before them, the only navigation known was coast navigation. The Norsemen were excellent ship-builders and knew how to calculate time by the sun, moon and stars, and into every history of the world, and into every encyclopedia I would have the fact conspicuously stated that pelagic navigation was discovered by the Norsemen." 1)

Who doubts that in the 'Middle Ages' or even earlier, that North and West Africans scientifically could not have done likewise?

Nonetheless, according to this work, the Norsemen visited North America already in 1347, '145 years before the rediscovery by Columbus'.

Why were the Norwegian-American trade relations terminated?

"The last expedition mentioned in the sagas was in 1347, 145 years before the rediscovery by Columbus. In that year it is stated that a vessel came from Markland (Nova Scotia) to Iceland with a cargo of wood. ... But this, as the reader will see, carries us down to a memorable period in European history. It brings us to the breaking out of the terrible black plague, or black death." 2)

It seems to be exaggerated, however, there are historic claims that the Egyptian "Nubian-Kemmiu peoples arrived in the Americas around 1200 BC". 3)

Based on serious research materials of world renowned historians, in an article "Pre-Columbian African Presence in the Americas", published on May 16, 2006 by Mathaba.Net, we stated:

"There exists definite historic evidence that between 1307 and 1312 AD, West African Mandinga fleets have sailed to America and later have also returned to Africa. In 1324 AD, the famous Mandinga emperor of Mali, Mansa Kankan Musa I on his way to Mecca, stopped over at Cairo, and was interviewed by the eminent 14th century Islamic historian, Al-Umars, to whom the emperor had related his rise to 'power" and that "his predecessors had launched two expeditions from West Africa to discover the limits of the Atlantic Ocean' ". 4)

Let us listen further to the reports of the eminent 14th century Islamic historian, Al-Umars, who wrote:

"I asked the Sultan Musa how it was that power came into his hands. ... 'We are from a house that transmits power by heritage ... the ruler who preceded me would not believe that it was impossible to discover the limits of the neighboring sea. He wanted to find out and persisted in his plans. He had about 200 ships equipped and filled them with men, and the same number of ships filled with gold, water and supplies in sufficient quantities to last for years." 5)

Many European and North American 'scholars' do not consider such evidence as being 'scientifically correct'. They especially accused Ivan van Sertima as follows:
"Van Sertima's work has been criticized by academics for making ill-founded Afrocentric claims. A 1997 Journal of Current Anthropology article criticized in detail many elements of Van Sertima's 1976 book They Came Before Columbus.[3] The book had not earlier received a thorough professional academic review. They stated that in claiming African origins for prehistoric Olmec culture (in present-day Mexico), Van Sertima had ignored the work of Central American researchers. They stated no evidence of a prehistoric African influence or presence had been found in controlled archaeological excavations in the New World." 6)

However, let Al-Umars inform us about the Big Truth:

"He told those who commanded them, return only when you have reached the extremity of the ocean or when you have exhausted your food and water. They went away ... Finally, a sole ship reappeared, We asked the captain about their adventure.'"

Let us read on; this may be a tale, but it is more interesting than big lies about Hussein's "arms of mass destruction"!

"He told the Sultan about their long voyage and how finally they entered something like a river with violent currents. He was last in the row, and saw how the other ships disappeared. He returned, to tell his story. However, "the emperor did not want to believe him, He equipped about 2000 more vessels and conferred power on me and left with his companion on the ocean. This was the last time I saw him and the others. ..." 7)

The solution to this historic riddle lies in the library of the museum of the Vatican; there we could find the historic evidence, the charts and calculations which could verify that Columbus knew with precision where he was going and how to return to Europe, thanks to African and Arab Mandinga  scientific and philosophic knowledge.

The irony of history, the strange ways of Truth: two hundred years after the visit of Musa I of Mecca, Christopher Columbus in his "Journals" personally testified about the presence of the Mandinga expeditions in the Americas.

According to the NEW AFRICAN, he said "that West African merchant fleets periodically left the Guinea Coast and sailed to Middle America with gold and other merchandise and introduced the art of alloying gold. ... The Indians brought handkerchiefs of cotton, very symmetrically woven and worked in colors like those brought from Guinea, from the rivers of Sierra Leone and of no difference ... The Mandinga traded gold and cloth called 'almaizar' ..."

For posterity fragments and quotations of Columbus' "Journals" were saved by Fraile Bartolomé de las Casas; if the following should be genuine, then we have just illustrated one of the greatest hoaxes launched against Africa and America, and that we should urgently study and rectify our history; also we should tell the true story and not fabricate new myths about socialism and emancipation.

Columbus himself informs us:

"The Indians brought handkerchiefs of cotton, very symmetrically woven and worked in colors like those brought from Guinea, from the rivers of Sierra Leone and of no difference ... The Mandinga traded gold and cloth called 'almaizar' ... "

Hence, in conclusion, even Christopher Columbus himself testified that the Mandinga had arrived in America long before him. 8)

Instead of winning Nobel Peace Prizes, who in Washington D.C. will ever discover the flowing, over flowing Mandinga truth about this world one day?

2) ibid.
3) See: NEW AFRICAN (London), "They Came Before Columbus", January, 2001, N° 392, pages 16-20
5) ibid.
7) The following quotes are from the NEW AFRICAN article.

Exclusive Interview with Franz J. T. Lee: Venezuela and the USA
franzlee, Wednesday, February 27, 2008 - 12:42
The demise of the dollar By Robert FisTuesday, October 06, 2009.

Dr. Franz J.T. Lee is Titular Professor at the University of The Andes, Mérida, Venezuela -- interviewed recently by VHeadline's Spanish-language edition editor Jesus Maria Nery Barrios.

"Are you really saying that not even God trusts in the greenback anymore?"

JMNB: Firstly, Prof. Dr. Franz Lee, it is an honor to make this exclusive interview with you, spotlighting current burning world issues. As well-known socialist revolutionary for nearly half a century, as international political analyst, excellent lecturer at many international universities and author of many writings mainly in German, English and Spanish on global, historical issues, especially about Africa, Europe and the Americas ... could you please tell us whether we are really heading inexorably towards a dreadful, global cataclysm with fatal results for the whole of humanity within a relative short period of time?

FJTL: I am not a divine prophet, a Nostradamus, also not a fortune-teller revealing future strokes of luck, however, as natural scientist and social philosopher I am studying the transhistoric latencies and tendencies, the possibilities and realities of our epoch of imperialist corporate globalization. In this case I fear that you are right, ruling class man, homo homini lupus, is on the verge of destroying life on this planet, that is, within the space-time of only two centuries the current capitalist world order is hell bent on annihilating a huge solar, galactic process that probably took 6 billion years to materialize itself.

JMNB: Getting back to contemporary reality, to the 'plague' about which already Simon Bolivar has warned us, at the end of January, Robert Reich of the 'Financial Times' informed us that the North America's middle class is no longer coping, and is being threatened by bankruptcy.In your opinion, what did he mean, in how far does the housing fiasco in the USA affect the future of the world market, of mankind?

FJTL: A complex question indeed, but let us get down to brass tacks. Other sources have informed us that even in Europe, for example, in Germany, that the middle classes are waning away progressively. As a result of globalization, of concentration of capital, monopolization, merging and fusion of giant corporations like Exxon and Mobil (1998) or even Conoco and Phillips (2002), also Time and Warner (1987, 2000) and even with AOL.

Currently the capitalist mode of production is experiencing its worst crisis, a possible coming global recession. Although the USA annually spends more than the rest of the world together in military budgets, in the production of arms of mass destruction and on aggressive wars, yet its economy is in shambles, is being burdened by trillions worth of internal and external debts and an alarming fiscal deficit.

One wonders why the U.S. economy still is functioning and why its ailing dollar ... not based on productivity, but rather on wild speculation ... has not collapsed as yet.

In fact, nobody knows or can calculate when this crash will happen. The only thing that is sure, is that the U.S. economy will eventually collapse unless, in the last minute by some miracle, the current world system could be changed radically.

Furthermore, the greenback is losing its hegemony as a world currency by the second; the dollar is not worth the paper on which it is printed anymore, it is simply backed by mammoth debts. At the same rate that foreign petro-dollars flee from Wall Street towards the East, towards Europe and Asia, towards the promising realms of the euro and the yuan, the US dollar is losing its value.

Probably, not even the beggars of Manhattan or Harlem want U.S. dollars anymore; everybody is looking for euros or other foreign currencies.

JMNB: Are you really saying that not even God trusts in the greenback anymore?

FJTL: This is neither a joke nor an exaggeration, it is an issue of life or death of North American world hegemony. The acceptance of foreign European money as exchange value to legally buy goods in Manhattan was a thing unheard of until now. Believe it or not, a while ago Reuters informed us that the U.S. dollar, the 'king among currencies' ain't what it used to be.

Now businessmen simply say that 'money is money' and ''Euros Accepted' signs are popping up all over in shops in New York City. Making use of the favorable exchange rates, hordes of European tourists flood New York City with hard cash to burn and to search for cheap 'pleasure' in the 'land of a million opportunities'.
Yes, the American dollar is in death throes.

JMNB: As political scientist, how do you see the slump of the American economy, how is it affecting the middle classes, and in this century can the United States government or anything else for that matter still stop the inexorable collapse of the world market, of global capitalism?

FJTL: To be or not to be? What a question, my countrymen?

The dialectical problem, the contradictory dilemma is simple: if we would conquer power by means of a classical social revolution, by blowing up bridges, by using the guillotine, by means of a 'reign of terror' a la frances, by destroying the infrastructures and power centers of modern capitalism, we would surely not survive the global toxic results, the human chaos, physical hunger and planetary radio-activity. It would be a fierce global class war, a Pyhrric victory.
If we would be doing nothing, and just allow the Nazis of this world to eradicate poverty by simply making us mad, and then as 'mad cows' annihilating the poor, then the very same would happen. Metropolitan imperialism did not produce arsenals of arms of mass destruction to massacre aliens or international terrorists. As their own spokesmen declare, they are being accumulated for the coming global class war.

This is what dialectics is all about, what it means to be on the horns of a dilemma. To enter the current trimensional, micro-, meso- and macro-worlds, we urgently need new emancipatory paradigms and parameters, a new logic, science, philosophy and wisdom; this is the only road left for us, is the crossing of the Rubicon, is creative exodus, is getting out, is exvolution.
But, let us return to current U.S. patriotic reality, to our immediate world problem.

JMNB: Is the current U.S. economic slump spelling future fascist doom?

FJTL: De facto, the United States war economy is already in the fangs of full imperialist over-production of arms and wares of mass destruction, that is, the United States is already the fascist police officer of world corporate imperialism, is entering a cataclysmic recession, which could be followed by violent, terrorist, military aggressions and global invasions, to conquer all remaining energetic sources and resources, and thus will be desecrating the sovereignty of all nations.

JMNB: Does this mean that according to 'full spectrum dominance' Venezuela is next on the list? In quintessence, what is the good news, and what is the bad news for Venezuela at this critical moment of world history?

FJTL: Which news first?

JMNB: The good news.

FJTL: Well, that is very easy. Contrary to many countries of the South, Venezuela practically swims in an eternal ocean of oil, gas and fresh water; it possesses an immense biodiversity, strategic metals and minerals, and a tropical vegetation that could produce oxygen for centuries to come.

JMNB: D'accord. And the bad news?

FJTL: Precisely the very same news. Contrary to many countries of the South, Venezuela practically swims in an eternal ocean of oil, gas and fresh water; ....

This is why Venezuela is practically a member of the sonorous 'axis of evil', is target No.1 for a new 'discovery', 'Christianization', pacification and military conquest, is threatened by the Plan Colombia, and why this Sword of Damocles will forever hover over our heads.

Uncle Sam will commit any crime that could give world capitalism a new lease of life. This is revolutionary dialectics, where 'good' and 'bad' news are two sides of the very same world market coin.

JMNB: Apart from trying to save North American capitalism by means of bloody invasions and world wars, how is the Bush administration trying to counter the internal explosive situation? Are the middle classes disappearing? What is currently happening to them?

FJTL: Totally ignoring the ordeal of the working masses, to counter the economic collapse, President Bush is now offering a $150bn stimulus package, including middle-class tax cuts and an increased spending on infrastructure.

JMNB: Do you think that this will somehow relieve the economic agony? Could it save the middle classes from extinction?

FJTL: No, this aspirin will definitely just heighten the political headache, strengthen the economic fever and activate the fascist cancer. Economically, this is just offering peanuts, when we consider the huge military budget for 2008, that Exxon Mobil makes $1bn profits a week, not even to mention the booty of Chevron, SonocoPhillips, Haliburton, Bill Gates and consorts.

JMNB: In times of severe social uproar, could you please explain briefly the political role of middle classes a little more precisely?

FJTL: Experts in this field have already explained the negative, reformist role of the middle classes in times of depression and recession. Philosophically speaking, concerning the middle classes, they generally play a very opportunistic, even reactionary role in times of social crises, namely, when capitalism shows its true 'democratic' snarl: fascism.

The immense class struggles on a world scale ... exploding in Nepal, East Timor, the Middle East, Pakistan, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Mexico, Ecuador and, of course, in Cuba and Venezuela ... now even encompasses 'proletarian' and 'bourgeois' nations and even continents. Hence, in globalization where physical labor of billions is becoming obsolete, as predicted by Marx and Engels in the 'Manifesto of the Communist Party', and in 'Capital', the middle classes will rapidly vanish, a few members may reach the shores of the upper echelons of imperialist corporatism, however, the immense majority in geometric numbers will progressively be devoured by the Moloch of global pauperization; as new unemployed starving masses, these ex-middle classes will have to share their misery with the wretched of the earth, and will have to storm the metropolitan flesh-pots and to forget all about their nightmares of 'communism' and their pipe-dreams about a good, capitalist, promised 'land of milk and honey'.

JMNB: Concerning the 'nightmares of communism' in your opinion, is it true that by inherent, inherited, ideological nature nearly all members of the middle classes (also in Venezuela) have a deep-seated, aggressive, anti-socialist, anti-communist and anti-Marxist world outlook?

FJTL: This anti-dialectical materialism, anti-hylozoism and anti-Marxism are not private assets of the middle classes only, some 2,500 years ago, already Anaxagoras was thrown out of Athens, was ostracized because he claimed that the Moon was not a divinity, not Selena, but simply a piece of rock. To preserve the ruling class status quo, all idealists, from Plato to Plotin, from St. Augustine to Saint Thomas of Aquinas, from the Papacy to the Vatican, all hated materialist philosophy. Furthermore, anti-communism, anti-Marxism are inherent basic elements of bourgeois, anti-proletarian, democratic, capitalist ideology: McCarthyism, Stalinism, Catholicism, Christianity, the world religions, Zionism, Apartheid, Gandhism, liberalism, revisionism, reformism, puntofijism, fascism and Nazism, as national socialism, all hated the very thoughts and acts of Marxist revolutionaries. In the last analysis, to them, a Marxist is the incorporation of the devil himself. Now, it seems that even the newly founded United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) is destined to take this anti-Marxist highway, if this should become true, then: 'Welcome, Uncle Sam'! Bye, Bye, Socialist Revolution!

JMNB: Before we follow up this train of thought, let us clarify another issue: like here in Venezuela, does it mean that the American middle classes have lived beyond their pay cheques, were living on credit, on credit cards? Will the Venezuelan middle classes eventually share the same fate of mass extinction? Will they soon lose their palaces and Hummer luxury cars to foreign and national banks?

FJTL: Yes, but this concerns different countries and distinct social classes and economic realities. We cannot deal in detail with such complex questions here. Nevertheless, could you please formulate your question more precisely?

JMNB: Okay, in what did the North American middle classes spend the money that they did not earn as yet, and will probably never earn, and what is really happening there? Are the North American middle classes eroding away?

FJTL: In spite of all the military pomp and glory, in a capitalist society of economic bankruptcy, in a 'great society', the inherent contradictions deepen, and it is the middle classes that first are feeling the volcanic eruptions. The moment when 'Third World' democratic revolutionaries conquer political power (not economic power), they tend to become middle classes, or at least to construct a new political middle class. This is the case currently in South Africa and Venezuela.

This is extremely dangerous for the forward march of a real, true socialist revolution. This new class, accumulating wealth and privileges, readily aligns itself with the counter-revolution.

JMNB: In brief, in this spirit, over the last months, economically, what really occurred in the USA?

FJTL: A lot of things that could scare us to death, however, the following, the possible collapse of world capitalism, concerns us here. As we have been informed last year the U.S. slump detonated in the housing sector, which abruptly ended the housing boom. Recession was dawning on the belligerent horizon and serious economic problems faced the banks and brokers, who possessed huge assets in mortgage securities. This again immediately affected the opulent middle classes.

JMNB: In this epoch of global class struggles, as mentioned by you before, we know that the middle classes are caught up between the two major contending historic forces, and that usually at first they experience the sysmic tremors of social upheaval. Hence, my questions: faced by an approximating disaster, by recession in the USA, which will spill over to Latin America, how are the Northern middle classes reacting? Did metropolitan capitalism come to their rescue? What is happening to their unpaid debts and homes? What will be their social destiny?

FJTL: Well, surely, these are fundamental questions, very educative for the Venezuelan 'Gente de petroleo', for the new political middle class, for the treacherous 'Chavistas without Chávez'.As we learned from the news, the newly pauperized middle classes, especially the lower sectors, desperately began to borrow. As a result of their home equity loans, in fact, their very homes became piggy banks. At the same time, the banks stepped in and credit cards were raining down like manna from the sky; furthermore, second mortgages and refinancing began to play havoc with this buffer class; like the USA itself, deeper and deeper, millions are progressively falling into the loan abyss, into the bottomless pit of globalization.

All this may cause rumbling, mumbling and roaring in the lower sectors of American society.
As such, in the United States the epoch of easily making and getting money suddenly came to a close. The bursting house bubble flung thousands of homeless citizens onto the merciless streets. ready to accompany the millions of poor devils who since decades were and are already sleeping under falling bridges.
Of course, all over anxiety and fear of dark days ahead, of an uncertain future are gripping not only the toiling laborers, but now also all middle class sectors, all previous lovers of capitalism, that is, all who were searching for a panacea, for change within this exploitative world order, that is, worldwide, from New York to London, from Berlin to Moscow, from Beijing to Tokyo, to Cape Town, to Rio deJaneiro, to Caracas, to Miami, etc. All the so-called technological benefits of globalized economic growth praised over the last decades did not even reach the middle classes, rather they mainly went into the production of arms and means of natural, mental and corporeal mass destruction, which just served the class interests of small global parasitic ruling elites. For example, the class interests of the hundreds of marauding billionaires in the world, of whom the USA harbors the lion's share. 432 of them make super profits worldwide, especially in the U.S. war economy; Germany has 55 billionaires, India 54, Russia 53, China 28, South Africa 3, Egypt 2 and Venezuela/Colombia remain with only 2.But things are becoming worse in the USA. Well known bourgeois analysts and economists like Sal Guatieri or John Ryding are telling us that "compelling evidence" exists that the United States is deep in recession. In fact, currently the recession has already reached the service sectors, restaurants, insurances, health care and hospitals. Well, during the next months, we will witness the Via Crucis of the U.S. dollar and the demise of the USA as a world super power. None of the competitors, neither China nor Europe, neither Russia nor India, show special interest in becoming super powers and to relieve the USA from its inexorable demise. Any final question?

JMNB: Yes, a very important one. It concerns our interview, it concerns countering the lies, myths and hoaxes spread by the huge international mass media about Venezuela, about President Chavez. Is a powerful electronic news medium, in foreign languages, like VHeadline imperative in the defense of democracy and socialism in Venezuela? Finally, do we really have a social, a socialist revolution in Venezuela?

FJTL: The truth is the Achilles Heel of the North American Empire of globalized corporate imperialism, of global fascism. In the fierce 'war of ideas', in this world of 'psychological warfare', of Orwellian Mind and Thought Control, of Newspeak, of a coming Mental Holocaust, urgently independent news media like our VHeadline website in English and Spanish, have to be supported materially and financially.

If we neglect this strategic praxical and theoretical weapon, our class enemies will have all the freedom in the world to denigrate us, to crush us, to assassinate the character of President Chávez and all these will weaken the already tender Bolivarian Revolution more and more, and eventually could nip it mercilessly in the bud.

It is extremely urgent that all forces of global resistance defend the truth in Venezuela, that they know what is going on here.

The counter-revolution is already in our midst, it is already capturing our news media, hence, let us take care. The Bolivarian Revolution is at stake.

Only Knowledge and Truth, only real revolutionary práxis and true emancipatory theory can still save it, that is, scientific and philosophic socialism.

The next months will be decisive, hence we have to act now.In conclusion, definitely, in the epoch of globalization, at the eve of the 21st century, social and socialist revolutions are very rare, very scarce indeed. Not anything is a revolution, is socialism. At least, the latter is the dialectical No, the negation of global capitalism and can be nothing else.

Surely, we are making the Bolivarian Revolution, over the last decade it really demonstrated its working class base: it showed magnificent paradigms of modern trails of elementary class struggle in April and December, 2002, and in January 2003.

Surely, we are constructing indigenous, Christian socialism, well, nothing wrong with this, we decide what we do and think. this is Bolivarian Socialism. However, our duty is to make permanently the world revolution; when it is there, we further it, when it is not there, we create it.

If we should lose it, we have to start all over again, enriched in praxical experience, invincible in social theory and powerful in emancipatory wisdom, creation and creativity.

We do not first support the revolution, then we get frustrated, because the revolution has entered the historical doldrums, then we leave it, and finally join the 'opposition'.

This is not revolutionary, this is cowardice, opportunism, is the behavior pattern of a traitor, of a treacherous reformist turncoat.If one should be the very last revolutionary on earth, it would still be one's duty to fight exploitation, domination, discrimination, genocide and alienation, the quintessence of capitalism, of globalization, we would have to defend the negation of capitalism, to construct its No, its Negation, Socialism.

Comrades, from Revolution to Emancipation, la lutta continua -- ¡Hasta la Victoria Siempre!

JMNB: Prof. Franz Lee, comrade, thanks for a most educative exclusive interview.

The demise of the dollar
By Robert Fisk
In a graphic illustration of the new world order, Arab states have launched secret moves with China, Russia and France to stop using the US currency for oil trading

In the most profound financial change in recent Middle East history, Gulf Arabs are planning - along with China, Russia, Japan and France - to end dollar dealings for oil, moving instead to a basket of currencies including the Japanese yen and Chinese yuan, the euro, gold and a new, unified currency planned for nations in the Gulf Co-operation Council, including Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait and Qatar.

Secret meetings have already been held by finance ministers and central bank governors in Russia, China, Japan and Brazil to work on the scheme, which will mean that oil will no longer be priced in dollars.

The plans, confirmed to The Independent by both Gulf Arab and Chinese banking sources in Hong Kong, may help to explain the sudden rise in gold prices, but it also augurs an extraordinary transition from dollar markets within nine years.

The Americans, who are aware the meetings have taken place - although they have not discovered the details - are sure to fight this international cabal which will include hitherto loyal allies Japan and the Gulf Arabs. Against the background to these currency meetings, Sun Bigan, China's former special envoy to the Middle East, has warned there is a risk of deepening divisions between China and the US over influence and oil in the Middle East. "Bilateral quarrels and clashes are unavoidable," he told the Asia and Africa Review. "We cannot lower vigilance against hostility in the Middle East over energy interests and security."

This sounds like a dangerous prediction of a future economic war between the US and China over Middle East oil - yet again turning the region's conflicts into a battle for great power supremacy. China uses more oil incrementally than the US because its growth is less energy efficient. The transitional currency in the move away from dollars, according to Chinese banking sources, may well be gold. An indication of the huge amounts involved can be gained from the wealth of Abu Dhabi, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Qatar who together hold an estimated $2.1 trillion in dollar reserves.

The decline of American economic power linked to the current global recession was implicitly acknowledged by the World Bank president Robert Zoellick. "One of the legacies of this crisis may be a recognition of changed economic power relations," he said in Istanbul ahead of meetings this week of the IMF and World Bank. But it is China's extraordinary new financial power - along with past anger among oil-producing and oil-consuming nations at America's power to interfere in the international financial system - which has prompted the latest discussions involving the Gulf states.

Brazil has shown interest in collaborating in non-dollar oil payments, along with India. Indeed, China appears to be the most enthusiastic of all the financial powers involved, not least because of its enormous trade with the Middle East.

China imports 60 per cent of its oil, much of it from the Middle East and Russia. The Chinese have oil production concessions in Iraq - blocked by the US until this year - and since 2008 have held an $8bn agreement with Iran to develop refining capacity and gas resources. China has oil deals in Sudan (where it has substituted for US interests) and has been negotiating for oil concessions with Libya, where all such contracts are joint ventures.

Furthermore, Chinese exports to the region now account for no fewer than 10 per cent of the imports of every country in the Middle East, including a huge range of products from cars to weapon systems, food, clothes, even dolls. In a clear sign of China's growing financial muscle, the president of the European Central Bank, Jean-Claude Trichet, yesterday pleaded with Beijing to let the yuan appreciate against a sliding dollar and, by extension, loosen China's reliance on US monetary policy, to help rebalance the world economy and ease upward pressure on the euro.

Ever since the Bretton Woods agreements - the accords after the Second World War which bequeathed the architecture for the modern international financial system - America's trading partners have been left to cope with the impact of Washington's control and, in more recent years, the hegemony of the dollar as the dominant global reserve currency.

The Chinese believe, for example, that the Americans persuaded Britain to stay out of the euro in order to prevent an earlier move away from the dollar. But Chinese banking sources say their discussions have gone too far to be blocked now. "The Russians will eventually bring in the rouble to the basket of currencies," a prominent Hong Kong broker told The Independent. "The Brits are stuck in the middle and will come into the euro. They have no choice because they won't be able to use the US dollar."

Chinese financial sources believe President Barack Obama is too busy fixing the US economy to concentrate on the extraordinary implications of the transition from the dollar in nine years' time. The current deadline for the currency transition is 2018.

The US discussed the trend briefly at the G20 summit in Pittsburgh; the Chinese Central Bank governor and other officials have been worrying aloud about the dollar for years. Their problem is that much of their national wealth is tied up in dollar assets.

"These plans will change the face of international financial transactions," one Chinese banker said. "America and Britain must be very worried. You will know how worried by the thunder of denials this news will generate."

Iran announced late last month that its foreign currency reserves would henceforth be held in euros rather than dollars. Bankers remember, of course, what happened to the last Middle East oil producer to sell its oil in euros rather than dollars. A few months after Saddam Hussein trumpeted his decision, the Americans and British invaded Iraq.

Entrevista a Franz J. T. Lee:
De verdad afirma que ni siquiera Dios confía en el billete verde?
Guerra preventiva: Bases militares en Colombia amenazan paz de América Latina
Fecha: 25/02/08
"FJTL: ... De facto, la economía de guerra de los Estados Unidos ya se encuentra en las fauces de la total sobreproducción imperialista de armas y herramientas de destrucción, es decir, los Estados Unidos ya es la policía fascista del imperialismo corporativo mundial, y está entrando en una recesión cataclísmica, que vendrá seguida de violentas agresiones militares terroristas, para conquistar todas las fuentes restantes de recursos, y así profanar las soberanías de todos los países.

JMNB: ¿Esto quiere decir que de acuerdo a la doctrina del 'dominio de pleno espectro' Venezuela es la próxima de la lista? En esencia, ¿cuáles son las buenas noticias y cuáles son las malas noticias para Venezuela en este momento crítico de la historia mundial?
FJTL: ¿Cuáles noticias quiere primero?

JMNB: Las buenas.

FJTL: Bueno, eso es muy sencillo. Al contrario que muchos países del sur, Venezuela prácticamente nada en un océano interminable de petróleo, gas y agua dulce; posee una inmensa biodiversidad, metales y minerales estratégicos, y una vegetación tropical que puede producir oxígenos por muchos siglos.

JMNB: De acuerdo. ¿Y las malas noticias?

FJTL: Precisamente son las mismas buenas. Por eso es que Venezuela es prácticamente un miembro del sonoro 'eje del mal', el objetivo número 1 para un nuevo 'descubrimiento', 'cristianización', pacificación y conquista militar, amenazada por el Plan Colombia, y el por qué esta Espada de Damocles penderá para siempre sobre nuestras cabezas. El Tío Sam cometerá cualquier crimen para darle al capitalismo mundial un nuevo aliento de vida. Esta es la dialéctica revolucionaria, en donde las 'buenas' y 'malas' noticias son los dos lados de la misma moneda del mercado mundial."

Entrevista a Franz J. T. Lee: De verdad afirma que ni siquiera Dios confía en el billete verde?
Guerra preventiva: Bases militares en Colombia amenazan paz de América Latina

YVKE Mundial :: Internacionales
Lunes, 5 de Oct de 2009. 7:47 pm
El representante permanente de Venezuela ante la ONU, Jorge Valero, puntualizó que aún está fresco en la memoria de todos los países latinoamericanos “el oscuro capítulo de las intervenciones militares de potencias extranjeras, de poderes imperiales y sus nefastas secuelas”
Prensa Web YVKE Mundial/ABN
Lunes, 5 de Oct de 2009. 7:47 pm

Venezuela reiteró ante la Organización de Naciones Unidas (ONU) su preocupación por la instalación de las siete bases militares de Estados Unidos (EEUU) en Colombia, por considerar que amenazan la paz en América Latina y el Caribe.

Así lo expresó el representante permanente de Venezuela ante la ONU, Jorge Valero, durante el inicio del debate general de la Primera Comisión, correspondiente al 64º Período de Sesiones de la Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas.

Valero puntualizó que aún está fresco en la memoria de todos los países latinoamericanos “el oscuro capítulo de las intervenciones militares de potencias extranjeras, de poderes imperiales y sus nefastas secuelas”, destaca una nota de prensa.

“Esta situación ha generado un clima de desconfianza en la región”, advirtió el también viceministro para América del Norte y Asuntos Multilaterales, Jorge Valero, al tocar el tema del desarme y de las armas nucleares.

El diplomático recordó el reciente señalamiento del presidente de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, Hugo Chávez, en su discurso ante las Naciones Unidas, en el cual indicó que “esas siete bases militares estadounidenses son una amenaza no sólo para la paz de Colombia sino para la paz en Suramérica”.

De igual modo, subrayó la pertinencia de la Declaración de los Jefes y jefas de Estado de Unión de Naciones Suramericanas (Unasur), celebrada en Bariloche, Argentina, en la que se decidió “reafirmar que la presencia de fuerzas militares extranjeras no puede amenazar la soberanía e integridad de cualquier nación suramericana y, en consecuencia, la paz y seguridad en la región”.

Recalcó la vocación pacifista de América Latina y el Caribe, a la vez precisó que la región posee uno de los niveles más bajos de gastos militares en el mundo. El embajador Valero reiteró el compromiso de Venezuela en la lucha por un mundo libre de armas de destrucción masiva, así como el apoyo del Gobierno Bolivariano al programa de acción para prevenir, combatir y eliminar el tráfico ilícito de armas pequeñas y ligeras en todos sus aspectos.

En relación con el tema de las armas de destrucción masiva, calificó de positivas las negociaciones que adelantan las dos principales potencias nucleares, Rusia y Estados Unidos, para la reducción de sus arsenales nucleares. “Esperamos que en los acuerdos que puedan alcanzar sean aplicados los principios de transparencia y verificación”, indicó.

Asimismo, expresó su desacuerdo con el instrumento aprobado por la Cumbre del Consejo de Seguridad sobre la No proliferación y Desarme, por cuanto intenta desconocer y deslegitimar el régimen multilateral de desarme negociado en foros multilaterales pertinentes.

Valero dijo que “Venezuela reafirma el derecho inalienable que asiste a los Estados a desarrollar, producir e investigar el uso de la energía nuclear con fines pacíficos, sin discriminación, en especial cuando se trata de países en desarrollo que requieren diversificar sus fuentes de energía y lograr su independencia tecnológica”.

El representante permanente de Venezuela ante las Naciones Unidas también ratificó el apoyo del Gobierno Nacional a la propuesta de establecer, en el menor plazo, una zona libre de armas nucleares en el Oriente Medio.

En este sentido, consideró “indispensable que Israel, el único país que no se ha adherido al Tratado sobre la No Proliferación de las Armas Nucleares (TNP) ni ha declarado su intención de hacerlo, renuncie a poseer esas armas y someta sus instalaciones nucleares a la supervisión del Organismo Internacional de Energía Atómica'.

  **** COMMENTARY:  Annihilation of all capitalist alliances, organizations, common wealths, 'unions', 'united states' or 'united nations' which perpetuate global exploitation ...

By Franz J. T. Lee

We welcome the immense efforts of President Hugo Chavez Frias and the Bolivarian Government of Venezuela in their gigantic efforts to foster a South-South, a Latin American-African Unity against global imperialism and fascism.

Of course unity must be based on revolutionary and emancipatory principles as elaborated by scientific socialism, as real, concrete praxico-theoretical anti-capitalism, directed against the current world order in which system none of our fundamental problems ever could be resolved.

Africa and South America formed and still compose two decisive sides of the Bermuda Triangle of the global division of labor, of the unequal exchange on the world market. Hence, our historic duty is to annihilate all alliances, organizations, common wealths, unions, 'united states' or 'united nations' which are perpetuating global famine, misery and repression, more precisely,  exploitation, domination, racism, militarization and alienation. Anything else will lead humanity itself to total extinction.

Africa-South America Summit in Venezuela Cements South-South Collaboration

September 27th 2009, by Tamara Pearson -
The Africa-South America (ASA) Summit (María Cecilia Toro/PP)
The Africa-South America (ASA) Summit (María Cecilia Toro/PP)

Mérida, September 27th, 2009 ( - Creating a new Radio of the South, formalising the Bank of the South, criticising the make-up of the UN Security Council, and supporting Honduran President Manuel Zelaya were among the outcomes at the second Africa-South American Summit (ASA) that was held this weekend on Margarita Island, Venezuela.

Heads of state from 61 countries, 49 from Africa and 12 from South America, participated in the summit, with the theme of "Closing gaps, opening up opportunities."

Radio of the South

The Summit launched the Radio of the South, a network of radio stations driven by Venezuelan National Radio (RNV), which, as it says in its mission statement, aims to bring the revolutionary struggles of the people of the South to the forefront, and to promote the union of peoples of the South through information exchange and cross-national collaboration.

Initially the radio network will reach 40% of Venezuela, as well as integrating 18 radio stations in Argentina, 10 in Colombia, 4 in Bolivia, 4 in Honduras and Uruguay, 3 in Panama, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Brazil, Mexico, and the U.S, 2 in Cuba, Ecuador, Peru, and Haiti, and 1 in Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Chile, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea.

A team of translators in Caracas will bring the programming to Gambia Radio, whose news will also be translated into Spanish. A similar exchange will be carried out with Radio Benin and Algeria's International Radio.

Programming will include 35% Venezuelan and Latin American music, and Radio of the South studios in Caracas will produce a third of the programming, while the rest will be produced by allied radios across America and Africa. The radio can also be listened to live on the internet at

Bank of the South

During the Summit on Saturday, the heads of state of Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay, and Venezuela signed a document to form the Bank of the South, which will have a starting capital of US$20 billion. Venezuela will contribute $4 billion, as will Brazil and Argentina, with other countries also contributing according to their capacity.

"It will be our bank, to bring back the reserves that we have up there in north that they use to give credits to us," Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez said.

"The transfer of resources from the South to the North is a tremendous figure and they lend that money back to us with interest rates far superior to what they pay us...but we're not stupid, we are waking up and they won't keep manipulating us with this tale of the ‘free market,'" Chavez said.

The constituting agreement says the bank will have its headquarters in Caracas and offices in Buenos Aires and La Paz. It will only lend to member countries and can lend to a range of organisations, including private companies, cooperatives, and state organisations, but taking into consideration the extent to which they generate food, energy, health, natural resources or knowledge sovereignty. It will also encourage development projects.

"The bank of the south is strategic... I think we should go even further and gradually put together our own South-South financial system," Chavez said, adding that in the future, "We have to create...a South-South bank or the Bank of ASA, Banasa."

For a fairer UN Security Council

In order to achieve more "balance," the ASA conference called for a reformation of the UN Security Council, in which 5 countries (China, France, Russia, the UK and the US) are permanent members and have veto power.

In a document passed by the summit, the ASA countries stated the need for "a greater participation of developing countries in South America and order to correct the current imbalance and make this Council a more democratic, transparent, representative, effective and legitimate organisation that responds to the new political realities."

The document continued, "We praise the efforts carried out in the inter-governmental negotiations on this issue, in conformity with decision 62/55 of the General Assembly of the UN."


Regarding the recent coup in June in Honduras and the return of legitimate president Manuel Zelaya to the country on 21 September, when he sought refuge in the Brazilian embassy, Brazil proposed a declaration on Honduras to ASA, which was approved unanimously.

The Declaration condemned the coup of 28 June and demanded the immediate and unconditional return of Zelaya to his position as president and that the Honduran coup regime comply with the Vienna Convention regarding the inviolability of diplomatic missions.

"The heads of state of South America and Africa meeting on Margarita Island on 26 and 27 September express their deep concern for the current political situation in Honduras," the declaration said.

Venezuela's participation in the Summit

Chavez proposed, and the summit approved, a proposal that Venezuela take on the responsibility of organising the ASA secretariat from now on. The secretariat would meet on Margarita Island and would ensure implementation of the plans and projects coming out of the summit.

Chavez said that in order to turn "ideas into projects" he should be permitted to head up the secretariat, and that what were previously working groups could be turned into presidential commissions.

During the summit, Venezuela also signed notes of understanding for the formation of joint mining ventures with Sierra Leone, Mali, Namibia, Niger, and Mauritania. Chavez announced that he had signed an agreement of cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations to assist with the battle against hunger in Africa by providing seeds, fertiliser, and other farming technology.
"[ASA] is a vital mechanism, it's the union of South America with Africa... We'll prove that we are a big power and that the union of these two powers, South America and Africa, will contribute to what [Simon] Bolivar said, the equilibrium of the world," Chavez said.


**** Comentario: Aniquilación de todas las alianzas capitalistas, organizaciones, mancomunidades, uniones, 'Estados unidos' o 'naciones unidas' que eternalizan la explotación global ...
Por: Franz J. T. Lee

Le damos la bienvenida a los esfuerzos inmensos del Presidente Hugo Chávez Frías y el gobierno bolivariano de Venezuela en su tarea gigantesca de fomentar una unión Sur-Sur, una unidad latinoamericana-africana en contra del imperialismo y fascismo global.

Naturalmente, la unidad tiene que basarse en principios revolucionarios y emancipatorios tal y como fueron elaborados por el socialismo científico, como un anti-capitalismo real, concreto, práxico-teórico, dirigido en contra del orden mundial actual en el que ninguno de nuestros problemas fundamentales jamás podrá ser resuelto.

África y América del Sur han formado y todavía siguen constituyendo los dos lados decisivos del 'Triángulo de Bermuda' de la división global del trabajo, del intercambio desigual en el mercado mundial.  Por esto, nuestra tarea histórica es aniquilar todas las alianzas, organizaciones, mancomunidades, uniones, 'Estados unidos' o 'naciones unidas' que eternalicen el hambre, la miseria y represión global, más preciso, la explotación, dominación, el racismo, la militarización y alienación. Cualquier otra cosa que no sea un anti-capitalismo contundente, llevará a la humanidad a la extinción.


(VIDEO) II Cumbre ASA concluyó con planteamientos históricos
Por: Prensa Web RNV / Prensa ASA /
Fecha de publicación: 27/09/09

II Cumbre ASA concluyó con planteamientos históricos
Credito: Abn
27 de sept. 2009. -"Vamos a conformar dos grandes polos de poder de este mundo pluripolar y multipolar que ya comenzó a nacer, buscando un mundo donde no habrá más imperialismo, donde los pueblos seremos libres, uniéndonos para salir de la miseria, del atraso, de la situación de subdesarrollo a la cual fuimos condenados por los imperios del norte", expresó el Presidente Chávez en referencia a Europa y Estados Unidos. "Por aquí, por el Sur, ha comenzado el camino hacia la salvación del mundo y de la humanidad".

Durante los dos días de discusión, los jefes de Estado expusieron
importantes planteamientos que dan cuenta de los nuevos esquemas de relaciones internacionales que están surgiendo.

"La liberación de los pueblos africano y suramericano depende de las capacidades, valores y la posibilidad de ser protagonistas del nuevo mundo que se está construyendo", afirmó Cristina Fernández, presidenta de Argentina en una de sus intervenciones.

Por su parte, el presidente de la República de Bolivia, Evo Morales, exhortó a los líderes y pueblos del Sur a recuperar los recursos naturales y a tomar previsiones para que el capitalismo no acabe con el planeta. También advirtió que "no solamente es importante liberarnos como seres humanos, sino liberar nuestros recursos naturales para resolver los problemas de nuestros países".

El líder libio Al Gadhafi recordó que "Hemos estado luchando por nuestra revolución, obteniendo mucho éxito en los países de América Latina, espero que podamos obtener resultados que consoliden los proyectos económicos alcanzados por nuestros pueblos y así poder abrir los caminos en la lucha por la soberanía". Asimismo, recalcó que "contamos con un potencial demográfico enorme y una calidad humana insuperable y tenemos que estar representados como la Unión Europea, como Rusia, como los países del Norte".

El acercamiento regional es uno de los grandes logros de este histórico encuentro que tuvo como sede al estado Nueva Esparta, por eso el presidente ecuatoriano Rafael Correa señaló que "estas reuniones entre los pobres de la Tierra nos asegura lograr la segunda independencia. La presidencia de la Unasur tiene el compromiso de fortalecer el proceso de coordinación latinoamericana y construir el desarrollo equitativo de nuestros pueblos, articular la cooperación internacional y la lucha contra la exclusión social, y en este caso particular implica la profundización de las relaciones entre América del Sur y África".

Video Fuente:

Video Fuente: 

**** International Financial Crisis and End of the Dollar Hegemony:

United States versus ALBA

By: Jutta Schmitt

The truth now is: “He who prints the money makes the rules”-- at least for the time being. (...) The goals are (...): compel foreign countries to produce and subsidize the country with military superiority and control over the monetary printing presses.

Ron Paul

In November last year, at the third extraordinary Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) - Peoples' Trade Agreement (TCP), the presidents came together with the intention to confront the crisis of the global capitalist system. Considering the volatility of the international financial system, the untenable situation of the capitalist model with its destructive logic, and the absence of proposals and categorical measures by the big global power centers in order to confront the crisis, the presidents of the ALBA member States shared the opinion that the international financial system cannot simply be re-founded but has to be replaced by a different one, based on solidarity, stability, ecological sustainability and social justice. The Heads of State concurred with each other in that the countries of our region, if their response to the crisis intends to be efficient, definitely have to break lose and protect themselves from the grip of transnational capital so as to be able to take a different direction that does not make them dependent on the eroded international economic and financial system, nor on the US dollar hegemony, artificially maintained and literally imposed by force. To this effect, they agreed on creating a Latin American monetary zone that would, in its first phase, comprise the ALBA member States and it was further detailed that the monetary zone would count with a Chamber for the Compensation of Payments and a Stabilization and Reserve Fund, financed by the contributions of its member States. What concerns the economic policies of the future Latin American monetary and economic zone, the Heads of State agreed on the implementation of an expansive policy of demand stimulation, Keynesian in nature, promoting investments to further the development of complementary economic activities. (1)

Furthermore, the presidents agreed that the Latin American monetary zone would issue its own currency, the 'Unified System of Regional Compensation' or Sucre, in order to gain independence from the international financial markets and to break with the eternal dependency on the US Dollar as the main currency for trade and financial transactions, prevalent up to now in the trade relations between our Latin American countries.(2) The financial operations with the new currency are expected to begin next year, and there is trust that the ALBA member States can count on this instrument from the very 1st of January 2010 on.(3) Therewith, an extremely important step will be taken on the road to the necessary dismantlement of the present international economic and financial system which remains characterized by the hegemony of the US Dollar, enabling the United States to import goods and services from all over the world in exchange of a printed piece of green paper which is practically worthless. 

The fact that the dollar today has no other real value than the value of the paper its printed on, makes the continuity of its world hegemony a matter of life and death for the United States of America. In a condensed overview of the history of the rise and fall of the US dollar, it is pertinent to remind the reader that after the Second World War the North American economy was the most powerful and solid of the entire world. It had enormous capacities of exportation and credit, which allowed it to finance the reconstruction of Western Europe through the famous Marshall Plan, in view of fostering a future European market to absorb US exports and investments, as well as containing the possible influence of the Soviet Union in Western Europe. The US Dollar transformed itself into the world's unchallenged, leading reserve currency, within the framework of the Bretton Woods international monetary system under the gold-exchange-standard. The Dollar figured as the anchor or reserve currency, convertible in gold, and fixed exchange rates were established between the different international currencies.

However, the growing trade deficit of the United States, combined with an inflationary monetary policy, especially during the Vietnam War, lead to the collapse of the Dollar's convertibility in gold, which ended with its unilateral suspension by the Nixon administration in 1973. Therewith, the original Bretton Woods system had collapsed and the dollar suffered a sensitive decline as international reserve currency, although it did not really get challenged by other currencies at that moment, given the absence of a sufficiently strong competitor who could have occupied this position. The breakdown of the Bretton Woods system lead to the devaluation of the dollar and thus caused a decrease of revenues from oil for the OPEC countries, as oil was priced in dollars only. This fact, in addition to the 1973 Jom Kippur war in the Middle East, lead to the rise of oil prices and the oil crisis of 1973/74, which, in turn, generated the phenomenon known as the 'recycling of petro-dollars' that ended up in strengthening once more the position of the US dollar. In the absence of an alternative international reserve currency or the existence of a petro-currency basket, the dollar got 'anchored' to oil in a kind of 'oil-standard', which enabled it to perpetuate itself, in spite of the enormous and growing balance of payments deficit of the US, as the primary international reserve currency and the only petro-currency, practically until our days. This panorama only had begun to change with the rise, at the beginning of the new millennium, of a strongly competing international reserve currency, the euro, and the displacement of the world economic center from North America to Europe and Asia. Today, with the collapse of the international financial system and the generalized capitalist crisis, the panorama looks troubling for the US dollar.  

Until now, two main factors have helped sustain the privileged position of the dollar in the world: Firstly, the capital flows towards the United States as a result of the re-investment, in the United States, of the commercial surpluses obtained by nations and investors through their trade with the US. Secondly, the exclusive pricing, on a world wide scale, of oil transactions in US dollars, being this factor of vital importance to the United States for guaranteeing the perpetuation of their currency as the leading and indispensable international reserve currency. This allows the US to continue to encumber itself with debts denominated in their own currency, for which the US holds the exclusive printing monopoly. This means that the Federal Reserve has printed and continues to print dollars in the quantity and at the time it deems necessary, practically without restrictions, apart from the capacity and will of others to absorb them on a global scale, and the inflationary pressure generated by this on the domestic as well as international level. As if this were not enough, the immense capital flows towards the United States from abroad not only have financed its trade and balance of payments deficits, but, and perversely so, also the costs of its military spending which are the highest of the planet. This is how, on the one hand and given the astronomical costs of its military spending, US military supremacy would come down like a house of cards if the dollar would lose its role as the world's leading reserve and petro-currency; and on the other hand, it is the same US military supremacy by virtue of which the United States have been able to defend, in a 'preemptive' manner, their currency and its privileged position in the world on which the whole deficit-existence of the United States of America has comfortably rested until now.

In the words of US congressman, Ron Paul:

         "Ironically, dollar superiority depends on our strong military, and our strong military depends on the dollar.  As long as foreign recipients take our dollars for real goods and are willing to finance our extravagant consumption and militarism, the status quo will continue regardless of how huge our foreign debt and current account deficit become." (4)

The price that a part of the world had to pay so that this perverse system would maintain itself intact, has expressed itself in pressures, coercion, threats, aggression wars, military coups and destabilizing operations, especially in the cases of those countries which, in one way or the other, have tried to establish another kind of financial framework which could have led, eventually, to the demise of the dollar hegemony. Remember the case of Iraq with the decision of Saddam Hussein, in November of the year 2000, to shift Iraq's international reserves from the dollar to the euro and to price the sale of Iraqi oil in euros; situation which was immediately reverted by the North American invaders once Iraq had been attacked and occupied in 2003. There is the case of the continuous threats against the Islamic Republic of Iran, a country which in the year 2002 began to shift a big part of its international currency reserves from dollars to euros and which launched the project of an Iranian Oil Bourse to be set up on the island of Kish, which would price the sale of Iranian oil in euros and other currencies with exception of the dollar. The project was postponed various times for unknown reasons until the Iranian Oil Bourse finally opened its operations in February last year.(5) And then, there is the notorious case of our Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, victim of a military coup in the year 2002 and since then, of continuous destabilization operations which point to an eventual direct military intervention by the US Armed Forces, from Colombian territory; not only because of the appetite the government of the United States has for the natural and energy resources of Venezuela and the region, but also because president Hugo Chávez has pronounced himself in the past in favour of the pricing of Venezuelan oil in euros and other currencies, and also has traded certain amounts of Venezuelan oil for its respective equivalent in goods and services with other countries of the region, thus avoiding the use of the US dollar in inter-regional trade transactions. Russia and China, which holds the world's largest dollar reserves, have long considered that the dollar does not fulfill a meaningful role as the leading reserve currency and have proposed, at the last summit of the G-8 in July this year, that a new, supra-national unitary currency be implemented world-wide, based on a mixture of regional reserve currencies and considered to be indispensable to overcome the abysmal crisis of the international financial system.

The price that ultimately had to be payed for the artificial maintenance of the dollar hegemony on a global scale, has been the very collapse of the international financial system, payed, as always and naturally, by the workers of this world, who do not only see the future of the present generation of workers compromised, but that of many generations to come. Even the United Nations seem to have woken up, given that the recently published annual report of the United Nations Conference for Trade and Development (UNCTAD) of the year 2009, suggests the replacement of the US dollar by a new, leading world currency. (6) And while a chorus of ever stronger voices is beginning to be heard, claiming for a new international financial order, our ALBA member countries, confident in their own strength, will and potentiality, are taking the first concrete steps in order to not only detach themselves from the dollar hegemony but to establish the parameters of a new kind of mutually beneficial and complementary trade relations. It is in this context that we can better understand why Latin America, at this moment and apart from its natural and energy resources being coveted by the global power centers, adopts special importance for the United States. A regional alliance like ALBA, with its own currency for trade and financial transactions, constitutes doubtlessly another nail in the coffin of dollar hegemony. This is at least one of the reasons for which, in the near future, the government of the United States will be pointing its guns against us, from Colombian territory. 



(2) ibidem.


(4) Hon. Ron Paul of Texas Before the U.S. House of Representatives, February 15, 2006;
(5) Oil Bourse Opens in Kish;

Crisis financiera internacional y fin de la hegemonía del dólar: EE.UU. versus ALBA

Por: Jutta Schmitt

"La verdad ahora es esta: 'Él que imprima la moneda, determina las reglas' -- por lo menos hasta próximo aviso. [...] El objetivo [...]: forzar a países extranjeros a producir y a subsidiar a nuestro país para que mantenga su superioridad militar y su control sobre las imprentas de las monedas."
Ron Paul

En noviembre del año pasado, en la tercera Cumbre Extraordinaria de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de la Alternativa Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América (ALBA) - Tratado de Comercio de Los Pueblos (TCP), sus presidentes se reunieron con el propósito de hacer frente a la crisis del sistema capitalista mundial. Considerando la volatilidad del sistema financiero internacional, la inviabilidad del modelo capitalista con su lógica destructora y la ausencia de propuestas y medidas categóricas por parte de los grandes centros de poder globales para enfrentar la crisis, los presidentes de los países miembros del ALBA coincidieron en que el sistema internacional financiero no puede ser refundado sino tiene que ser sustituido por otro, basado en la solidaridad, estabilidad, sustentabilidad ecológica y en la justicia social. Los jefes de Estado coincidieron en que los países de nuestra región, si su respuesta a la crisis quiere ser eficaz, deben, en definitiva, desprenderse y protegerse de las garras del capital transnacional para así poder emprender un camino propio que no dependa del erosionado sistema económico y financiero internacional, ni de la hegemonía del dólar norteamericano artificialmente mantenida y literalmente impuesta a la fuerza. Al efecto, se acordó crear una zona monetaria latinoamericana que abarque en una primera fase a los países miembros del ALBA y se especificó que la zona monetaria cuente con una Cámara de Compensación de Pagos y con un Fondo de Estabilización y de Reservas, financiado por los aportes de sus países miembros. En cuanto a la política económica de la futura zona económica y monetaria latinoamericana, se acordó la implementación de una política expansiva de demanda (keynesiana), promoviendo inversiones para el desarrollo de actividades económicas complementarias. (1)

Además, se estableció que la zona monetaria latinoamericana será regida por su moneda propia, el 'Sistema Unitario de Compensación Regional' o sucre, en función de independizarse de los mercados financieros mundiales y de romper con la eterna dependencia del dólar como moneda de intercambio, hasta ahora prevaleciente en el comercio y negociaciones entre nuestros países latinoamericanos.(2) El inicio de las operaciones financieras con la nueva moneda única se proyecta hacia comienzos del próximo año y así es como se espera poder contar con este instrumento a partir del 1ro de enero de 2010.(3) Con ello, se dará un paso importante en el desmantelamiento necesario del actual sistema económico-financiero internacional que sigue siendo caracterizado por la hegemonía del dólar que posibilita a los EE.UU. importar bienes y servicios desde todas partes del mundo, a cambio de un papel impreso de color verde, prácticamente sin valor alguno.

El hecho de que el dólar hoy en día no tenga más valor real que el valor del papel en el que está impreso, convierte la continuidad de su hegemonía mundial en una cuestión de vida y muerte para los EE.UU. En un comprimido recorrido histórico referente al auge y caída del dólar estadounidense cabe recordar, que después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial la economía estadounidense era la más poderosa y sólida del mundo. Tenía enormes capacidades exportadoras y crediticias, lo cual le permitió financiar la reconstrucción de Europa por medio del famoso Plan Marshall, con miras a fomentar en Europa un futuro mercado para sus propias exportaciones e inversiones, al igual que contener la posible influencia de la Unión Soviética en Europa Occidental. El dólar norteamericano se convirtió en la incontestada moneda líder mundial de intercambio y de reserva, en el marco del sistema monetario internacional de Bretton Woods bajo el patrón oro-divisas. El dólar figuraba como moneda ancla, convertible en oro, y se estableció una relación fija entre los valores de cambio de las distintas divisas internacionales.

Sin embargo, el creciente déficit comercial de los EE.UU., combinado con una política monetaria inflacionaria específicamente durante la guerra de Vietnám, condujo al quebrantamiento de la convertibilidad del dólar en oro, terminando con su suspensión unilateral por parte de la administración Nixon en 1973. Con ello, el sistema original de Bretton Woods había colapsado y el dólar sufrió una disminución sensible como moneda de reserva internacional, aunque no llegó a ser seriamente retado por otras monedas para este momento, dada la ausencia de un competidor lo suficientemente fuerte para ocupar esta posición. El colapso del sistema de Bretton Woods condujo a la devaluación del dólar y causó una disminución sensible en las ganancias petroleras de los países OPEP, ya que su petróleo se cotizó en dólares. A esto se le sumó la guerra de Jom Kippur en el Medio Oriente, y ambos factores condujeron entonces al alza de los precios petroleros y la crisis petrolera de 1973/74, la cual, a su vez, generó el fenómeno conocido como 'reciclaje de los petro-dólares' que volvió a beneficiar la posición del dólar norteamericano. En ausencia de una moneda de reserva internacional alternativa o de la existencia de una cesta de divisas petroleras, el dólar se 'ancló' al petróleo en una especie de estándar-petróleo lo que le posibilitó perpetuarse, a pesar del enorme y creciente déficit de la balanza de pagos estadounidense, como primera moneda de intercambio y de reserva internacional y como única divisa petrolera, prácticamente hasta nuestros días. Este panorama sólo había empezado a cambiar con el auge, a comienzos del nuevo milenio, de una fuerte moneda competidora, el euro, y el desplazamiento del centro económico mundial desde Norteamérica hacia Europa y Asia. Ahora, con el colapso del sistema financiero internacional y la crisis capitalista generalizada, el panorama luce aun más preocupante para el dólar estadounidense. 

Hasta ahora, dos factores principales han sostenido la posición primordial del dólar en el mundo: Primero, los flujos de capital hacia los EE.UU. por concepto de 'reinversión', es decir, la reinversión, en los EE.UU., de los superávit comerciales obtenidos por parte de países e inversionistas extranjeros por su intercambio con EE.UU. Segundo, la facturación de las transacciones petroleras a escala mundial en dólares americanos, siendo este factor de vital importancia para los EE.UU. por garantizar la perpetuación de su moneda como la divisa de reserva internacional más importante. Esto les permite continuar 'auto-endeudándose' en 'dólares propios' sobre cuya impresión tienen el monopolio exclusivo. Esto quiere decir, que la Reserva Federal ha imprimido e imprime dólares en la cantidad que considera necesaria y en el momento cuando lo considere necesario, prácticamente sin restricciones, aparte de la capacidad y voluntad de absorción a escala mundial y la presión inflacionaria generada tanto a nivel doméstico como internacional. A todas estas, los inmensos flujos de capital hacia EE.UU. provenientes del exterior no sólo han financiado sus déficit comerciales y de balanza de pagos, sino y perversamente también sus gastos militares que son los más altos del planeta. Así es como por un lado y ante los astronómicos costos de su gasto militar, la supremacía militar estadounidense se derrumbaría como un castillo de naipes si el dólar perdiera su rol como moneda líder de reserva internacional y divisa petrolera; y por otro lado, es esta misma supremacía militar mediante la cual los EE.UU. han estado defendiendo 'preventivamente' a su moneda y su posición privilegiada sobre la que descansa cómodamente toda la existencia deficitaria de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica.

En palabras del congresista estadounidense, Ron Paul:

            "Irónicamente, la superioridad del dólar depende de nuestra fortaleza militar, y nuestra fortaleza militar depende del dólar. Mientras que los recipientes extranjeros sigan aceptando nuestros dólares por sus bienes reales y mientras que tengan la voluntad de financiar nuestro consumo extravagante y nuestro militarismo, el estatus quo continuará no importa cuán gigantesca será nuestra deuda externa y cuán deficitario nuestro déficit de pagos." (4)

El precio que una parte del mundo ha tenido que pagar para que se mantenga intacto este sistema perverso, han sido presiones, coerciones, amenazas, guerras de agresión, golpes de Estado y operaciones de desestabilización, especialmente en caso de aquellos países que, de una forma u otra, han tratado de establecer otros marcos de referencia financiera que conducirían a la ruptura de la hegemonía del dólar. Recordemos el caso de Irak con la decisión de Saddam Hussein, en noviembre del año 2000, de cambiar sus reservas de dólares norteamericanos por euros y de facturar la venta del petróleo Iraquí en euros; situación inmediatamente revertida por los invasores estadounidenses una vez agredido y ocupado Irak en el 2003. Tengamos presente el caso de las amenazas continuas contra la República Islámica de Irán, país que en el año 2002 empezó a cambiar gran parte de sus reservas internacionales denominadas en dólares por euros, y que lanzó el proyecto de una bolsa petrolera Iraní a establecerse en la isla de Kish, que facturaría la venta del petróleo iraní en euros y en otras denominaciones con excepción del dólar; proyecto pospuesto varias veces hasta que finalmente la Bolsa de Petróleo Iraní pudo abrir sus operaciones en febrero del año pasado.(5) Está el notorio caso de nuestra República Bolivariana de Venezuela, víctima de un golpe de Estado en el año 2002 y desde entonces, de continuas operaciones de desestabilización que están apuntando a una eventual intervención militar directa por parte de las Fuerzas Armadas estadounidenses desde territorio Colombiano; no sólo por las apetencias del gobierno de EE.UU. de apoderarse de los recursos energéticos y naturales de Venezuela y de la región, sino por que el presidente Hugo Chávez se ha pronunciado a favor de facturar la venta del petróleo venezolano en euros y en otras divisas, e inclusive ha intercambiado determinadas cantidades de petróleo venezolano por su respectivo equivalente en bienes y servicios con otros países de la región, obviando así el uso del dólar estadounidense como moneda de intercambio. Rusia y China, que dispone de las reservas internacionales más amplias del mundo denominados en dólares, han considerado desde hace tiempo que el dólar ya no cumple una función sana como moneda líder de reserva e intercambio internacional, y han propuesto, en la última cumbre del G-8 del pasado mes de julio, la implementación de una nueva moneda única supra-nacional, basada en una mezcla de monedas de reserva regionales, considerada indispensable para superar la abismal crisis del sistema financiero internacional.

El precio que, al fin y al cabo, hubo que pagar por el artificial mantenimiento de la hegemonía del dólar a escala global, fue el colapso mismo del sistema internacional financiero, precio pagado como siempre y por supuesto, por los trabajadores del mundo, quienes ven comprometido no sólo el futuro de la actual generación de trabajadores, sino de muchas generaciones por venir. Hasta la propia ONU parece haber despertado, ya que en el recientemente publicado reporte anual de la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Comercio y Desarrollo (UNCTAD) del año 2009, se sugiere la sustitución del dólar estadounidense por una nueva moneda líder mundial.(6) Y mientras que se empieza a escuchar un coro de voces cada vez más fuerte en reclamación de un nuevo orden financiero internacional, nuestros países del ALBA, confiando en su propia fuerza, voluntad y potencialidad, están emprendiendo los primeros pasos concretos para no sólo desprenderse de la hegemonía del dólar sino para establecer nuevos parámetros de intercambio solidario y complementario. En este contexto se entiende mejor, por qué América Latina en este momento, aparte de sus codiciados recursos naturales y energéticos, adquiere especial importancia para los EE.UU. Una alianza regional como el ALBA con su propia moneda de intercambio y reserva, constituye sin duda otro clavo más en el ataúd de la hegemonía del dólar. Esta es una de las razones por la que próximamente el gobierno de los EE.UU. nos estará apuntando con sus armas desde territorio Colombiano.



(2) ibídem.


(4) Hon. Ron Paul of Texas Before the U.S. House of Representatives, February 15, 2006;, mi traducción del inglés.

(5) Oil Bourse Opens in Kish;


Sunday, 6 September 2009

***** Preparing the ground for military aggression
against Venezuela and Latin America:
The Big Lie Strategy in operation

By Jutta Schmitt

All men can see these tactics whereby I conquer, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved.
Sun Tzu

It is surprising and dismaying that the world’s only superpower does not have a unified political-military strategy and a multidimensional inter-agency organizational structure to confront Chavez’s challenge. It is time to make substantive changes to deal better with irregular contemporary conflict.
Max G. Manwaring

In a previous article  we showed the relation that exists between the US Defense Department's most recent war doctrines and the 'Theory of the New Wars', an ideological construction originating from the realm of European academia developed at the beginning of the new millennium, which is nothing else but the 'moral' justification of the aggression wars and countless interferences all over the world of the European and North American ruling classes, in pursuit of their respective geo-strategic interests and global expansion. All the military doctrines, security strategies and political ideologies emanating from the global power centers have a common denominator: they are fully inscribed in the justification and defense of an economic, political and social order that is unsustainable and unjustifiable and the continuance of which, over time, has turned into a human security and survival problem on a planetary scale: capitalism. In order to justify the unjustifiable, we see the recycling and massive dissemination of myths that are profoundly rooted in the minds of millions of people who have been victims, since centuries, of mind control which adopts the most variegated forms. The main message that has been transmitted through these myths, especially in the past two decades, is to equate capitalism with the highest possible degree of human civilization, rejecting any search for an alternative as 'obsolete', 'anachronistic' and 'pre-modern'. 

Who wants to break away from the established parameters and dares to take different ways than those prescribed by capitalist globalization has to confront an avalanche of obstacles, threats, covert and overt interventions as well as campaigns of defamation and ridicule. Any country or group of countries that does not stick to the rules and interferes with the interests of the global power centers, will be subjected to destabilization operations and is then declared a 'failed State' or 'crisis region' that merits military invasion in the name of the 'security' of the 'international democratic community' (the West).

Given this background it is troublesome to see how an encirclement is closing down on Venezuela and also on the countries that constitute the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA), a proposal for Latin American integration which does not respond to the interests of big international capital. We are witnessing at this moment how the first step of an escalation is being executed that may well lead to an eventual military confrontation between the US-Colombian armed forces and those of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, as well as other countries of our region. It is sufficient to take a look at the strategic locations of the seven North American military bases that will be set up shortly on Colombian territory and at the full spectrum of marine, air force, army and special forces components which will operate from there, so as to realize that the projection of US military force from Colombia exceeds by far the supposed 'war against drugs' and clearly points towards control and vigilance of the whole of South America. Given that Colombia shamefully and literally is transforming itself into a US aircraft carrier for operations in Latin America, within short notice we will directly share boundaries with a nation the governments of which we can qualify, without hesitation, as the most interventionist and criminal of the world. (In the words of George H.W. Bush: If the North American people knew what we have done, they would string us up from the lamp posts.) The reasons for the deployment of US military forces on Colombian territory constitute  a kind of layered rings of lies. The 'official' reason, the 'war against drugs', makes for the necessary background from which the destabilization operations against Venezuela and the ALBA countries will be staged, whereas the unofficial reason is expressed in the US military's 'strategic studies', in itself a set of clever distorsions to justify the one and only REAL reason: the open military defense of North American interests and of the continuity of the rules of the game of globalization in the region.

In one of these strategic studies concerning US security and defense matters in Latin America, entitled: 'Latin America's New Security Reality: Irregular Assymetric Conflict and Hugo Chávez'(1), Max G. Manwaring, professor for Military Strategy at the U.S. Army War College, presents president Chávez of Venezuela as an individual 'possessed' by Simon Bolívar's dream, pushing forward an agenda of open confrontation with the objective to conquer revolutionary power in the whole region, reason for which he is considered to be a national security threat to North America. The writing, published in August 2007, is a follow-up and deepening of an earlier study by the same author from the year 2005, entitled: Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez, Bolivarian Socialism, and Asymmetric Warfare, made public in Venezuela at the time by Eva Golinger.(2) The reading is sobering and gives us an idea of what will expect us if we do not prepare a timely response that goes beyond some mere declarations of protest on paper.

In his second writing about the alleged threat posed by Chávez, Manwaring, in line with the Theory of the New Wars and as if he wanted to discard from the beginning any doubts about the peaceful and defensive character of the United States of America, introduces his study with the categorical assertion that "war no longer exists".(3) Precising this assertion and citing the British military strategist General Rupert Smith from his writing: 'The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World', the author tells us that war as a confrontation between Nation States conceived of as a massive military event which decides over international disputes, has disappeared from the scene and has been replaced by 'wars among peoples' that involve a kind of combatants who are not necessarily soldiers or armies. (4)

Going into the detailed description of what he calls the 'hard facts' of this 'new paradigm of war', Manwaring points out that today's' combatants, rather than armies, tend to be "small groups of armed soldiers who are not necessarily uniformed, not necessarily all male but also female, and not necessarily all adults but also children."(5) Implicit in this statement  lies a kind of 'technical-tactical' justification for the indiscriminate assassination of civilians as effectively has happened in the first two aggression wars of the 21st Century, undertaken by the government of the United States of America against Afghanistan and Iraq, in which civilians have been and continue to be massacred indiscriminately, with total impunity and on a large scale in a manner that is reminiscent of an expedition of collective punishment. The second 'hard fact' of this new paradigm according to Manwaring/Smith postulates that these small groups of combatants "tend to be interspersed among ordinary people and have no permanent locations and no identity to differentiate them clearly from the rest of a given civil population". (6) Implicit in this second 'hard fact' lies the technical-tactical justification of the deliberate and indiscriminate bombing of civilian infrastructure like schools, hospitals, water reservoirs, electricity plants, and even centers of religious gatherings and densely populated poor quarters, as has effectively happened in the same aggression wars we just mentioned.

In addition, the author points out that contemporary conflict is being conducted on four interrelated levels, in a hierarchic top-down structure from the political, strategic, operational to the tactical level, what seems at first sight no different from the classical definition of war by Von Clausewitz according to which war is the continuation of politics by other means. However, and according to Manwaring/Smith, "contemporary conflict is now lengthy and evolves through two or three or more noncoercive organizational stages before serious coercion and confrontation come into play", being the military operations "only one of the many instruments of power employed by the combatants" (7). To "evolve through two or three or more noncoercive organizational stages" before entering direct confrontation could be translated, in the language of the now extinct international law, as a crime against peace, as is the planning, preparation and carrying out of an aggression war, such as the government of the United States has waged against Afghanistan and Iraq under the pretext of the 'war against terrorism', bidding farewell to international law and laying down the de-facto basis for the club-law or "New Wars" of the 21st Century. Certainly and in our latitudes, the recent coup in Honduras, followed by the agreement of the Colombian and North American governments on facilitating the use of seven military bases for the US on Colombian territory, in addition to the uncountable acts of open provocation against the governments of Bolivia, Ecuador and Venezuela in the past months and years, give the impression that we are witnessing "two or three or more noncoercive organizational stages" before the government of the United States, in alliance with the Colombian ruling class and other ruling elites in the region that may offer themselves for the purpose, passes on to direct military confrontation with one or more of our Latin American countries.

Then, Manwaring proceeds to point out the 'transnational character' of modern conflict in which combatants hide in border regions and other countries' territories from where they stage their operations (which turns out to be quite a convenient 'hard fact' if, from one of the global power centers like the United States or Europe, one plays the card of destabilization and intervention of a nation or region). The author concludes the review of the essential elements of the new paradigm of war with the observation that the major military and nonmilitary battles in modern conflict take place among the people and if reported, become media events that may or may not reflect the reality on the ground. Here, of course, one cannot but think of the dictatorship of the international media that works hand in hand with the US military-industrial complex and sells us information that serves their strategical objectives. Finally, the author emphasizes that all means employed in this kind of conflict are "intended to capture the imaginations of the people and the will of their leaders, thereby winning a trial of moral (not military) strength" and that "the struggle is total, in that it gives the winner absolute power to control or replace an entire existing government or other symbol of power". (8) Apart from the concept and practice of 'regime change' pushed forward by the government of the United States where it deems it necessary, and its battle to "win hearts and minds", what comes to mind here is the concept and practice of the 'de-territorialization' of war, which, according to the Theory of the New Wars and its postulate of 'military humanism', bestows on the 'civilized nations' (United States and Europe) not only the self-proclaimed 'right', but even the obligation to intervene in conflict zones 'for the sake of their populations' and 'in the name of human rights', concept that goes hand in hand with that of a 'limited sovereignty' and of 'military export of stability'.

After enumerating the 'hard facts' we just mentioned and commented, as essential characteristics of the new paradigm of war according to a writing of British general Rupert Smith, Manwaring, in a sudden and grotesque twist, ascribes these to president Hugo Chávez as if he were the intellectual author of this paradigm, besides other doctrines of war:

    "These are the principal characteristics of what President Hugo Chavez of Venezuela now calls “4th Generation War” (4GW), “Asymmetric War,” “Guerra de todo el pueblo (“War of all the People,” “People’s War,” or “War Among Peoples”). President Chavez asserts that this type of conflict has virtually unlimited possibilities for a “Super Insurgency” against the United States in the 21st century. It appears that Chavez’s revolutionary (Bolivarian) ideas are developing and maturing, and that he and Venezuela, at a minimum, are developing the conceptual and physical capabilities to challenge the status quo in the Americas. This challenge is straightforward and is being translated into a constant, subtle, ambiguous struggle for power that is beginning to insinuate itself into political life in much of the Western Hemisphere." (9)
This maneuver clearly reveals the political-ideological, strategic-military background of the matrix of public opinion generated on a global scale with the complicity of the dictatorship of the international media, to justify an eventual aggression war against the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, matrix that has already been successfully tested in the case of Afghanistan and Iraq: To present the country or government who will be attacked as the aggressor, according to an old technique called Big Lie Strategy, a term coined by Adolf Hitler in his autobiography, "Mein Kampf" (1925). The term refers to a lie of such proportions that nobody ever would suspect that anyone could be so imprudent as to distort the truth in such an infamous manner:

    "[...]in the big lie there is always a certain force of credibility; because the broad masses of a nation are always more easily corrupted in the deeper strata of their emotional nature than consciously or voluntarily; and thus in the primitive simplicity of their minds they more readily fall victims to the big lie than the small lie, since they themselves often tell small lies in little matters but would be ashamed to resort to large-scale falsehoods. It would never come into their heads to fabricate colossal untruths, and they would not believe that others could have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously. Even though the facts which prove this to be so may be brought clearly to their minds, they will still doubt and waver and will continue to think that there may be some other explanation. For the grossly impudent lie always leaves traces behind it, even after it has been nailed down, a fact which is known to all expert liars in this world and to all who conspire together in the art of lying." (10)

Considering the countless assaults against other governments and peoples of this world by the governments of the United States in the past and present, it is troublesome when a North American military strategist from the Strategic Studies Institute of the US Army War College asserts that president Chávez is "encouraging his Venezuelan and other followers to pursue a confrontational, populist, and nationalistic agenda" by means of implementing a "totalitarian democracy" (in reference to the direct, participatory and protagonist democracy or 'government of, by and for the people' as proposed by Lincoln), and accuses Chávez of wanting to destroy North American hegemony by means of conducting an irregular Fourth-Generation War “Super Insurgency”. (11) Such an assertion announces bad things to come.   

We don't want to conclude our observations without mentioning some other pieces of lie and propaganda like that of Ray Walser, Heritage Foundation's political analyst for Latin America (12) who, in his "Four concerns about Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez", holds that the latter, first, provides material assistance and sanctuary to the FARC, second, allows individuals operating for Hezbollah to work under Venezuelan diplomatic cover, third, hinders anti-drug efforts in the region and fourth, denies democratic opportunity to the opposition and opposes democratic government,(13), lies that Walser recycles in his articles. Not to mention the notorious Otto Reich, who recently shot his ammunition from the pages of the Foreign Policy Magazine, in a master piece of distortion and bellicose propaganda, entitled: 'Chávez’s Covert War: Obama needs to call Venezuela’s president what he is: a terrorist and a drug-trafficker', and in which Reich details what the title promises: infamous falsehoods. In this piece of provocation, Reich portrays president Chávez as a coward who only points his guns at his own, defenseless citizens and who does not have the guts to fight openly in the international arena:

    "Chávez has only ever pointed his guns at defenseless Venezuelan civilians. Bullies like him do not forewarn their intended victims. He does not fight openly, preferring to intervene covertly -- either directly or through his regional "anti-imperialist" alliance, the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (ALBA), a collection of the highest-decibel, lowest performing leaders in the region, from countries including Cuba, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Ecuador, and, until June, Honduras." (14)

This is what best illustrates the objective of this co-ordinated avalanche of propaganda and provocation that has been flowing from the pens of military strategists, political analysts, ex State officials, columnists and journalists, all inscribed in the Big Lie Strategy. It therefore is imperative for us to study, know and debate this kind of propaganda,  its historical precedents, its current context, the mental configuration of its promoters and its effects on the population in order to counter it effectively.


(1) Max G. Manwaring, Latin America's New Security Reality: Irregular Assymetric Conflict and Hugo Chávez, August 2007;
(2) Eva Golinger, El ejército de los Estados Unidos prepara doctrina para guerra asimétrica con Venezuela,
(3) Manwaring op.cit. , pág. 1
(4) ibidem
(5) ibidem
(6) ibidem
(7) ibidem , pág. 2
(8) ibidem
(9) ibidem, pág. 3
(10) Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, chapter 10, cited in:
(11) Manwaring, op. cit., pág. 3
(12) Washington's biggest and most influential think tank and sponsor of the notorious Project for a New American Century.
(13) Ray Walser, Four Concerns about Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, Heritage in Focus, video-clip, 21st of July, 2008,
(14) Otto Reich, Chávez’s Covert War: Obama needs to call Venezuela’s president what he is: a terrorist and a drug-trafficker. .

**** Fourth Generation Warfare: Twisting our minds into total submission

Fourth Generation Warfare:
Twisting our minds into total submission

by Jutta Schmitt

In the context of the threat and open provocation that constitutes, for Venezuela and all of Latin America, the setting up of seven US military bases on Colombian territory (in addition to three bases US forces are already operating from), Venezuelan-American lawyer Eva Golinger warned in the television programme La Hojilla on August 14th 2009, about a new war doctrine recently released by the Pentagon and already being executed here in Venezuela: Irregular Warfare. Considering the seriousness of what Golinger brought forward in the programme mentioned, it is pertinent to go more deeply into the matter in order to determine, how this new doctrine is connected with other concepts and realities as for example Fourth Generation Warfare as well as with ideological constructions like the so called Theory of the New Wars. The latter is a compound of arbitrary postulates originating from the academical realm and sold to the public as a 'theory' which dates back to the beginning of the new millennium and which has quickly found its way into the sphere of the national security strategies of both, the United States of America and the European Union. Once we've come to know the interrelations and the general context into which the latest war doctrines are inscribed we can better design our own defense strategies and even think of outlining a categorical counter-offensive.

In an update for the doctrine of Irregular Warfare released by the US Department of Defense in Dember last year, we find the following definition of the concept:
        „ ... to fight unconventionally, such as by working with foreign security forces, surrogates and indigenous resistance movements to shore up fragile states, extend the reach of US forces into denied areas or battle hostile regimes.“ (1)

The directive then proceeds to explain the reasons for the update, referring in the first place to the emergence of irregular challenges that threaten the United States' national security:
      „ The policy, a result of more than a year of debate in the defense establishment, is part of a broader overhaul of the US military's role as the threat of large-scale combat against other nations' armies has waned and new dangers have arisen from shadowy non-state actors, such as terrorists that target civilian populations.“ (2)

The idea that 'classical' or conventional wars between national states as experienced during the Twentieth Century are a thing of the past and that the new wars of the Twenty-First Century are of an essentially different character, is not that new. Since quite a couple of years already the US- american and european ruling classes, through their big means of mass communication, have been suggesting to the world public opinion that the protagonists of the wars of the Twenty-First Century are some 'bad guys' who operate as 'non-state-actors', in other words, terrorists. We are told that the wars of the Twenty-First Century are and will be inner-state armed conflicts with endemic roots, that is, home-made. We are further told that this type of conflicts are of an ethnical, religious or political-ideological nature, promote terrorism, open the doors for drug-trafficking and organized crime and thus erode any effort to guarantee public order and internal security, reason for which they necessarily lead to the so-called 'failed States'. 'Failed States', in turn, endanger the peace of their surrounding region and thus constitute a security challenge to the 'modern' or 'civilised' countries, especially in our globalized world. The latter, for being 'superior' with regard to their values and economic and cultural performance, are obligated to intervene in those 'chaotic regions' for the sake of helping the populations there to recover or gain the firm ground of 'western-democratic civilization'.

We have to have this crystal-clear: The spreading and penetration of this kind of ideas forms an intrinsical part of another war doctrine, that of Fourth Generation Warfare, the main theater of operation of which is the human mind of both, the populations of the metropolitan countries as well as the populations of those countries who do not pertain to this auto-proclaimed 'western-democratic-civilization'. The main objective of Fourth Generation Warfare fought on a world-wide scale is to bomb, weaken and then mold the human psyche so that the peoples of this world will succumb to the reality of globalized capitalism with its economic, financial, ecological, social and moral crisis, with its perverse concentration and monopolization of capital and power in the hands of some small elites, and to make the peoples of the world accept the eventual rise of a totalitarian, repressive and dictatorial system on a global scale, which we have referred to in earlier writings as 'globofascism'. (3) Specifically, the goal of Fourth Generation Warfare world-wide is to make the populations of the metropolitan countries adopt, as their own, a supposed 'civilizing and pacifying mission', based on the 'universal values of western democracy' which needs to be extended all over the world; and to make the populations of the 'periphery' give up on resistance and accept the forceful imposition of neoliberal, globalized capitalism and its rules of the game as the only viable way for humanity, thus making them refrain from seeking to establish alternative models, such as is the case here in our latitudes.
The cannons in this war against the human mind and psyche are the mass media and the artillery is 'information'. Amongst the army that moves this lethal machine figure journalists, columnists, scientists, military personnel, strategists, politicians, advisors, State officials, burocrats, diplomats and academics, all of them putting themselves knowingly or unknowingly at the service of irrestrict capital accumulation on a global scale, nevermind its nefarious consecuences, a thousand times proven, a thousand times suffered. The serfdom of its followers increases even more in times of a systemic crisis like the one we are experiencing at this moment, which is of a magnitude that only uses to be 'resolved' by means of a devastating world war.

So let us get acquainted with one of the fighters of the Fourth Generation Warfare, defender of globalized, neoliberal capitalism and exponent of the Theory of the New Wars: Thomas P. M. Barnett, US citizen, military analyst and geostrategist of the Pentagon, who identifies in his book, 'The Pentagon's new map: War and Peace in the Twenty-First Century' (4), a critical zone which hosts internal conflicts, possible failed States and threats for international security, and which he calls 'the non-integrated gap'. This dangerous blackhole comprises Central America and the Carribean, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Guyana, Suriname, French Guyana, the African Continent except South Africa, Eastern Europe, the Middle East except Israel, Central Asia, Indochina, Indonesia y Fillipines. The 'non-integrated gap' stands in a stark contrast to what Barnett calls 'the functioning core of globalization', that is: the United States of America, Canada, Mexico, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Western Europe, Russia, China, India, Japan and Australia. What characterizes the 'non-integrated gap' according to Barnett is its being composed of countries that are uncoupled from globalization and its rules of the game, reason for which they constitute a potential danger and a challenge for the 'functioning core' from the point of view of Western security policy. Thus and in the name of the security strategies of the 'functioning core of globalization', the countries of the 'non-integrated gap' will have to be forcefully integrated, that is, by military power. Behind this cumbersome terminology hides, of course, a simple reality: The open militarization of neoliberal capitalism and its unhindered expansion to all corners of the planet. In the words of Barnett himself:
        “ If a country is either losing out to globalization or rejecting much of the content flows associated with its advance, there is a far greater chance that the U. S. will end up sending forces at some point. Conversely, if a country is largely functioning within globalization, we tend not to have to send our forces there to restore order or eradicate threats.“ (5)
The frontiers between the 'non-integrated gap' and the 'functioning core of globalization' are, according to Barnett, in any case (and conveniently) dynamic, and it may occur that a sector of the 'non-integrated gap' ends up forming part of the 'functioning core', as has effectively happened with Eastern Europe, which has been 'integrated' (or rather absorbed), after the neoliberal restructuring of its economies, into the European Union in the context of the Union's expansion towards the east ('Osterweiterung'). This occured in 2004, the year when Barnett published his book and when ten new member states, eight from Eastern Europe, joined the European Union, followed by another two in 2007. However, Barnett does not exclude the possibility either, that reversely, part of the 'functioning core' may decay and come to form part of the 'gap'.
Barnett's European equivalent is Robert Cooper, a British diplomat, strategist, European National Security Strategy advisor in 2003, main advisor of Javier Solana, the High Representative of Foreign Policy and Common Security of the European Union, and author of the book 'The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century'. (6) Cooper, like his American counterpart, divides the world in two: a 'postmodern' world, conceived as a voluntary association of States like the European Union and characterized by its security, transparency and the interdependence of its member States; and a 'premodern' world, conceived as a world of 'failed States', incapable of maintaining their monopoly of force and of defending their citizens from the actions of irregular groups, destabilizing factors or organized crime. Like a postmodern Macchiavelli, Robert Cooper openly and unscrupulously recommends the double standard as the method of international relations in our world of two worlds of the Twenty-First Century:
        „ The challenge to the postmodern world is to get used to the idea of double standards. Among ourselves, we operate on the basis of laws and open cooperative security. But when dealing with more old-fashioned kinds of states outside the postmodern continent of Europe, we need to revert to the rougher methods of an earlier era - force, pre-emptive attack, deception, whatever is necessary to deal with those who still live in the nineteenth century world of every state for itself. Among ourselves, we keep the law but when we are operating in the jungle, we must also use the laws of the jungle. In the prolonged period of peace in Europe, there has been a temptation to neglect our defences, both physical and psychological. This represents one of the great dangers of the postmodern state.“ (7)
Let us take note then, that the United States of America as well as Europe see us, the peoples who conform Humanity of the South and who have been victims of their criminal assaults ever since the times of colonization, as a 'black hole', 'non-integrated gap', 'premodern world' or 'jungle'! Let us also take note, that the conflicts in our regions, products of our historic realities in which each stage since colonization has been marked by impositions and interventions from the capitalist power centers and often artificially stoked from outside, are 'home-made', tribal in nature, inter-ethnical, anachronical, just typical of the jungle! Once more, each and every word of Western propaganda transpires hateful racism and supremacism. However, there is an interesting detail when Cooper reveals the class character of the 'new' security and defense doctrines, underlining that it is essential for the elites of the 'postmodern world' to establish a set of beliefs in a 'civilizing mission' to convince their own population and others of their noble intentions:
        „To persuade your own people to risk their lives in chaotic foreign countries requires the belief that you are spreading some gospel, pursuing a mission of civilization or (in the worst case) establishing the natural superiority of your race. It requires confidence and conviction. And then, if you are to be successful, you have to persuade the people that you are subjugating that you are doing this in their own interests and in the service of a higher good; most people are subjugated by ideas rather than by force.“ (8)
In their need to control the minds of their populations with this kind of 'new myths' within the context of Fourth Generation Warfare and to achieve that they affirm the ever more openly military character of the European Union, the European dominant classes can count on various erudites, true masters in hiding the cold interests of economic-imperial expansion of the European elites behind a mask of morality, humanism and the virtues of a guardian angel. Amongst them are Mary Kaldor, of British nationality, director of the Center for Studies of Global Governance at the London School of Economics and Political Science, member, at the time, of the Study Group of European Security Capacities in the service of Javier Solana and author of the book: 'New and old Wars. Organized Violence in a Global Era'. (9) Kaldor arguments in the same line as Cooper when she, too, states that we live in a world of two worlds: the world of 'modern cosmopolitanism' which is a world in peace, based on the values of inclusion, universalism and multiculturalism, and the world of 'premodern particularism', which is a world characterized by the implosion of those States which have been unable to cope with globalization and whose autonomy, monopoly of violence and capacity to defend their citizens has been broken, giving way to violence and the collapse of democracy. Thus, Kaldor pleads for the launching of a 'global civilizing process' in order to contain the threat that the premodern world poses for global security.

The german sociologist Ulrich Beck, in the same order of ideas, claims an 'European Cosmopolitan Empire', a kind of guardian angel who, in order to confront the dangers emanating from the premodern world, must impose by force the values of the postmodern world there, in the name of the unprotected citizens of the premodern world:

          „A new policy is emerging, a postnational policy of military humanism, that is, the implementation of a transnational military power that has the goal of reinforcing the respect for human rights beyond national boundaries. [...] Thus, war becomes the continuation of ethics by other means.“ (10)

Finally, Herfried Muenkler, professor for Political Theory of the Humboldt University in Berlin and author of the book 'The New Wars' (11), defines these as characterized by 'de-nationalization' and 'asymmetricalization'. The latter concept refers to the unique, military supremacy of the United States of America in today's world, that can only be confronted, by any given adversary, by means of asymmetric strategies like terrorism or guerilla warfare. 'De-nationalization' refers to the decomposition of State authority which occurs, according to Muenkler, in the first place in countries of the so called 'Third World' and which is the result of the failure of modern State building processes there, with the blame lying on their inmoral and corrupt elites. Thus, Muenkler conceives the new wars as state-disintegration-wars. The State's loss of its monopoly of violence gives way to the emergence of violent private groups who finance themselves through smuggling and drug-trafficking with destabilizing consequences for politics and economics of the region, reason for which the West must intervene to avoid a major encroachment. In the words of Muenkler:
    „International terrorism has its refuge in the first place there where State structures have collapsed in the course of an inter-societal war. No region exists today in the globalized world in which the collapse of State structures would not have serious consequences for global, political and economic structures, reason for which, from the point of view of security policy, the need for military export of stability emerges. The West has to be prepared to assume the armed pacification of entire regions.“ (12)

'Postmodern world' versus 'jungle world', 'military humanism', 'military export of stability', 'armed pacification' – these are the keywords of an ample literature of which we have barely presented some fragmentary extracts, the postulates of which have penetrated, like bullets, the brains of millions of people in Europe and North America. These ideological constructions, disseminated in the realm of academia, in books and strategic documents of security and defense, in the press and on TV, represent nothing less than the 'moral' legitimation of the 21st century's aggression wars, ignoring any notion of national sovereignty, territorial integrity, self-determination of the peoples and the principle of non-intervention for considering them archaic, premodern concepts, proper of the jungle. The military export of stability in recent times to what was once Yugoslavia, to Afghanistan, Irak and Palestine, gives us an idea of what is awaiting us with the planned export of stability to Our America, Latin America, with the setting up of seven or more US military bases on Colombian territory.
With this general context in mind, having shown the connections between Fourth Generation Warfare and ideological constructions like the Theory of the New Wars, and taking into account their consequences for the thinking and attitude of millions of people in the metropolitan countries, let us get back once more to the concept of Irregular Warfare as introduced and explained by Eva Golinger in the programme 'La Hojilla' on the 14th of August. Under the premise that we have entered (or never left) an era of perpetual warfare, the new doctrine of Irregular Warfare comes to be the core of the United States' military mission of the 21st Century. Its goals are to materialize the stategic, mid- and long term objectives by means of unconventional methods, working on the adversary's physical and psychological erosion in the context of a protracted low-intensity-war which is being waged on a regional and global scale. All this in order to gain control over territories, natural and energy resources, geostrategic corridors and entire populations. Irregular warfare is about what the US Department of Defense, in correspondence with the concepts sketched above, calls 'stability operations', when in reality and reversely, the objective of these operations is the continuous and systematic destabilization of governments who are perceived as hostile or non-aligned with the interests of the US, or who simply defend their national sovereignty, territorial integrity and self-determination – 'premodern', 'achaic' ideas and concepts, according to the global elites.

Therefore, it comes as no surprise that the already mentioned North American strategist Thomas P. M. Barnett, in an article published on the 10th of August, titled 'The New Rules: The Evolution of the U.S. Military', states in response to the „predictable condemnations from anti-American elements in South America“, that the installation of new US military bases in Colombia „simply reflects the increasing granularity of our efforts at promoting regional stability.“ (13)

'Stability operations' – there is certainly something striking about this concept: If there is anything the global ruling classes have tried to stabilize without success, it's this very system which is unstable in itself: capitalism. There is no capitalism without crisis, there is no crisis without capitalism. The capitalist economic crisis is being periodically generated by the internal contradictions of the system, and wars are its periodical 'solutions'. Economic crisis and its solution, war, are the two sides of capitalist instability. However, when capital and labour forces are being destroyed by wars the system gets a new lease of life as long as the 'reconstruction' lasts, and this is wherein its perverse stability and stable perversion lies.

Only with a social class consciousness and a consequently internationalist, antiimperialist and anticapitalist vision can we emerge without harm from the bombardments of mental manipulation and draw up a strategy that does not end up delivering us into the arms of the monster we are fighting.

(1) New Irregular Warfare Directive, in: Small Wars Journal,
(2) ibidem
(3) Jutta Schmitt, On the objective function of terrorism and racism in the era of globalization (Acerca de la función objetiva del Terrorismo y Racismo en la Era de la Globalización), in: Franz J. T. Lee & Jutta Schmitt, Venezuela: La Revolución Bolivariana pasando el Rubicón, Editorial IMMECA, Mérida 2006.
(4) Thomas P. M. Barnett, The Pentagon's new Map: War and Peace in the Twenty-First Century, G.P. Putnam's Sons / Penguin Group Inc., New York 2004
(5) Thomas P. M. Barnett, The Pentagon's New Map,
(6) Robert Cooper, The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century, Atlantic Books, London 2003
(7) Robert Cooper, The new liberal imperialism,
(8) Cited in John Keane, Remarks on Robert Cooper's Towards a European Army?,
(9) Mary Kaldor, New and old Wars. Organized Violence in a Global Era; Stanford University Press, Stanford-California 1999.
(10) Ulrich Beck, Ueber den postnationalen Krieg, en: Blaetter fuer Deutsche und Internationale Politik, Nr. 8 / 1999, S. 987, (, my translation from German.
(11) Herfried Muenkler, Die neuen Kriege, Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek 2002
(12) ibidem, pág. 221, my translation from German.
(13) Thomas P. M. Barnett, The New Rules: The Evolution of the U.S. Military ,

**** Preparando el terreno para la agresión militar contra Venezuela y América Latina: La estrategia de la gran mentira en operación

Por: Jutta Schmitt

Todos los hombres pueden ver la táctica con la que realizo mis conquistas... Pero son pocos los que son capaces de ver la estrategia que posibilita la victoria.
                                                          Sun Tzu

"Es sorprendente y preocupante que la única super potencia
del mundo no tiene ni una estrategia político-militar unificada
ni una estructura de organización multidimensional entre agencias
para confrontar la amenaza que representa Chávez. Es tiempo que
se hagan cambios sustanciales para tratar de una manera más
adecuada a los conflictos irregulares contemporáneos." 
                                                    Max G. Manwaring

En un artículo anterior  hemos demostrado el vínculo existente entre las más recientes doctrinas de guerra del Departamento de Defensa norteamericano y la 'Teoría de las Nuevas Guerras', una construcción ideológica proveniente del ámbito académico europeo que data del comienzo del nuevo milenio y que brinda nada menos que la justificación 'moral' para las guerras de agresión y las infinidades de interferencias de las clases dominantes europeas y norteamericanas en el mundo, en resguardo de sus respectivos intereses geo-estratégicos y de expansión global. Todas estas doctrinas militares, estrategias de seguridad e ideologías políticas emanadas de los centros globales del poder tienen un denominador común: se enmarcan plenamente en la justificación y defensa de un orden económico, político y social insostenible e injustificable, cuya permanencia en el tiempo se ha convertido en un problema de seguridad y supervivencia humana a escala planetaria: el capitalismo. Para justificar lo injustificable, se recurre al reciclaje y la difusión masiva de unos mitos que están profundamente arraigados en miles de millones de mentes de los habitantes de este planeta, víctimas desde hace siglos de un control mental que adopta las más variadas formas. El mensaje principal que se ha estado transmitiendo a través de estos mitos, especialmente en las últimas dos décadas, es equiparar al capitalismo con el más alto grado de civilización humana posible, y relegar cualquier alternativa al ámbito de lo 'obsoleto', 'anacrónico' y 'premoderno'.

Quien quiere salirse de los parámetros establecidos y se atreve a emprender caminos diferentes a los prescritos por la globalización capitalista tiene que enfrentarse a una avalancha de obstáculos, amenazas, intervenciones veladas y abiertas y campañas de difamación, ridiculización y calumnia. Cualquier país, bloque de países o región del planeta que no se está ateniendo a las 'reglas del juego' e interfiere con los intereses de los centros de poder globales, es declarado 'Estado fallido' - previas operaciones de desestabilización -, y corre el riesgo de ser intervenido militarmente en nombre de la 'seguridad' de la 'comunidad democrática internacional' (Occidente).   

En este sentido es preocupante ver cómo se está cerrando un cerco sobre Venezuela y también sobre los países de la Alianza Bolivariana Para los Pueblos de NuestraAmérica, una propuesta de integración latinoamericana que no responde a los intereses del gran capital internacional. Vemos cómo se está ejecutando en este momento el primer paso de una escalada que puede desembocar en una eventual confrontación militar entre las FF.AA. colombo-estadounidenses y las FF.AA. de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela y otros países de nuestra región. Basta con una mirada a las ubicaciones estratégicas de las siete bases norteamericanas a establecerse próximamente en territorio Colombiano y al espectro completo de los componentes de la marina, fuerza aérea, ejército y fuerzas especiales que operarán desde ahí, para darnos cuenta que la proyección de la fuerza militar estadounidense desde Colombia excede por mucho la supuesta 'guerra contra las drogas' y apunta claramente hacia el control y vigilancia de Sudamérica entera. Dado que Colombia se está transformando, lamentable e literalmente, en el portaaviones de EE.UU. para sus operaciones en América Latina, dentro de poco tiempo estaremos entonces colindando directamente con una nación a cuyos gobiernos no podemos dudar en calificar como los más intervencionistas y criminales del mundo. (En palabras de George H.W. Bush o 'Bush-padre': "Si el pueblo norteamericano supiera lo que hemos hecho, nos colgarían de los postes de luz.”) En una especie de anillos de mentiras superpuestas, se han estado tejiendo las 'razones' por el despliegue de las fuerzas militares yanquis en territorio colombiano. La razón 'oficial', la 'guerra contra el narcotráfico', brinda el necesario fondo teatral sobre el que se montarán las operaciones de desestabilización en contra de Venezuela y los países del ALBA mientras que la razón no-oficial se expresa en los 'estudios estratégicos' del ámbito militar estadounidense, a su vez un conjunto de tergiversaciones para justificar la razón real: la abierta defensa militar de los intereses norteamericanos y de la continuidad de las reglas de juego de la globalización en la región. 

Así es como en uno de los estudios estratégicos sobre seguridad y defensa estadounidense en América Latina del año 2007, titulado 'La Nueva Realidad de Seguridad de América Latina: Conflicto Irregular Asimétrico y Hugo Chávez' (1) de Max G. Manwaring, director del Instituto de Estudios Estratégicos del US Army War College, se le atribuye al presidente Chávez en persona, como un individuo 'poseído' del sueño de Bolívar, el estar ejecutando una agenda de confrontación abierta con fines de conquistar el poder revolucionario en toda la región, por lo que se le considera una amenaza para la seguridad nacional norteamericana. En este escrito, publicado en Agosto del año 2007, el autor emprende un seguimiento y una profundización de una anterior publicación suya del año 2005, titulada 'Hugo Chávez de Venezuela, Socialismo Bolivariano y Guerra Asimétrica', dado a conocer en Venezuela para este momento por Eva Golinger. (2) La lectura es desengañadora y nos da una idea qué es lo que nos espera si no preparamos a tiempo una respuesta que vaya más allá de unas meras declaraciones de protesta en papel.

En este segundo escrito (2007) sobre la 'amenaza que representa Chávez', Manwaring, en concordancia con la Teoría de las Nuevas Guerras y como si quisiera descartar de antemano cualquier duda acerca del carácter pacífico y defensivo de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, introduce su estudio con la aseveración categórica de que "la guerra ya no existe" (War no longer exists). (3) Precisando esta aseveración y citando otro estratega militar, el General británico Rupert Smith, el autor nos dice que la guerra como confrontación entre Estados con sus batallas entre ejércitos y como evento masivo bélico que decide las disputas en materia de asuntos internacionales, ha desaparecido y ha sido reemplazado por las 'guerras entre pueblos' que involucran combatientes que no necesariamente son soldados o ejércitos. (4)

Entrando en descripción detallada de lo que llama los 'hechos duros' de este 'nuevo paradigma de la guerra', Manwaring señala que los combatientes de hoy, más que ejércitos, son "pequeños grupos de soldados armados, no necesariamente uniformados, no necesariamente sólo hombres sino también mujeres, y no necesariamente sólo adultos sino también niños."(5) Conste, que aquí yace implícito una especie de justificación 'técnico-táctica' para el asesinato indiscriminado de civiles tal y como ha sucedido efectivamente en las primeras dos guerras de agresión del siglo XXI, emprendidas por el gobierno de los EE.UU. contra Afganistán e Irak, en las que se masacraron y se siguen masacrando impunemente y a gran escala a ciudadanos civiles, a manera de expedición de castigo colectivo. El segundo 'hecho duro' de este 'nuevo paradigma de la guerra' como explicado por Manwaring/Smith, postula que estos pequeños grupos de combatientes se suelen dispersar entre el pueblo común y corriente y no tener ni identificación clara ni ubicación permanente para poder diferenciarlos inequívocamente del resto de la población civil (6). Conste, que en este segundo 'hecho duro' yace implícito la justificación técnico-táctica del bombardeo deliberado e indiscriminado de la infraestructura civil como escuelas, hospitales, acueductos, plantas de electricidad, hasta centros de reunión religiosos y barrios populares, tal y como efectivamente ha sucedido en estas mismas guerras de agresión estadounidenses que acabamos de mencionar.

El autor señala además, que los conflictos contemporáneos son conducidos en cuatro niveles interrelacionados en orden jerárquico-descendiente, desde el político, estratégico, operacional y táctico, lo que parece a primera vista nada más que la confirmación de la definición clásica de Von Clausewitz, según la cual la guerra es la continuación de la política con otros medios. Sin embargo y según Manwaring/Smith, los conflictos de hoy se prolongan en el tiempo y evolucionan a través de dos o tres o más etapas no-coercitivas y de organización, antes de entrar en confrontación directa con el adversario, siendo la opción militar sólo uno de varios instrumentos de fuerza empleados por los combatientes. (7) "Evolucionar a través de dos o tres o más etapas no-coercitivas y de organización antes de entrar en una confrontación directa" pudiera ser traducido, en el idioma de lo que alguna vez fue el hoy extinto derecho internacional, como atentado y crimen contra la Paz, esto es, la planificación, preparación, inicio y conducción de una guerra de agresión, tal y como el gobierno de los EE.UU. la efectuó en contra de Afganistán e Irak so pretexto de la 'guerra contra el terrorismo', dando al traste con el derecho internacional y asentando las bases, de facto, para las 'Nuevas Guerras del siglo XXI'. Ciertamente y en nuestras latitudes, el reciente golpe militar en Honduras, seguido por el acuerdo de los gobiernos colombiano y norteamericano sobre la instalación de las siete bases militares en territorio colombiano, aunado a los innumerables actos de provocación abierta en contra de los gobiernos boliviano, ecuatoriano y venezolano en los últimos meses y años, hacen pensar que estamos presenciando "dos o tres o más etapas no-coercitivas y de organización" antes de que el gobierno de los EE.UU., en alianza con la oligarquía Colombiana y demás oligarquías de la región que se prestan a colaborar, pase a la confrontación militar directa con uno o más de los países nuestroamericanos.

Luego, Manwaring procede a señalar el carácter 'transnacional' de los conflictos modernos en los que los combatientes se esconden en regiones fronterizas y en territorios de países terceros desde los cuales montan sus operaciones (lo que resulta ser un 'hecho duro' muy conveniente si se juega, desde un centro de poder como EE.UU., a la desestabilización e intervención de un país o una región). El recorrido por los elementos centrales del 'nuevo paradigma de la guerra' lo concluye el autor con la observación de que las grandes batallas militares y no-militares ahora se efectúan entre "la gente" y tienden a convertirse en eventos mediáticos que pueden -o no - reflejar la realidad. (8)  (Aquí por supuesto no se puede sino pensar en la dictadura mediática internacional que trabaja de la mano del complejo industrial-militar estadounidense y que nos vende la información según sirve a sus fines estratégicos.) Termina diciendo el autor que todos los medios empleados en estos conflictos apuntan a capturar la imaginación de gente propia y ajena para ganar la batalla moral en una lucha de carácter 'total', que otorgará al ganador el poder total para controlar o reemplazar gobiernos enteros u otros símbolos de poder. (9)

Aparte del concepto y la práctica del 'regime change' (cambio de régimen) efectuado por EE.UU. en todo el mundo y su batalla por 'ganar corazones y mentes', lo que viene a la mente aquí es el concepto y la práctica de la 'ex-territorialización' de la guerra que, según la Teoría de las Nuevas Guerras y su postulado del 'humanismo militar', les otorga a las 'naciones civilizadas' (EE.UU. y Europa) no sólo el auto proclamado derecho, sino el deber de intervenir en las zonas de conflicto, por el 'bien de sus poblaciones' y en nombre de los 'derechos humanos',  concepción que va de la mano con los conceptos de una 'soberanía limitada' y 'exportación militar de estabilidad'.   

Ahora bien, después de enumerar los puntos que acabamos de mencionar y comentar, como características esenciales del nuevo paradigma de la guerra según el general Rupert Smith, Manwaring, en un giro súbito y grotesco, presenta a Hugo Chávez como autor intelectual de este mismo paradigma, además de otras doctrinas de guerra:

    "Estas son las principales características de lo que el presidente Hugo Chávez de Venezuela ahora llama la Guerra de Cuarta Generación, Guerra Asimétrica, Guerra de todo el Pueblo. El presidente Chávez asevera que este tipo de conflicto tiene virtualmente posibilidades ilimitadas para [orquestar] una Super-Insurgencia en contra de los EE.UU en el siglo XXI. Parece que las ideas revolucionarias (bolivarianas) de Chávez se están desarrollando y madurando, y que él y Venezuela, cuando menos, están desarrollando las capacidades conceptuales y físicas para retar el estatus quo en Las Américas. Esta amenaza es directa y se traduce en una lucha constante, sutil y ambigua por el poder que esta empezando a congraciarse con la vida política en gran parte del Hemisferio Occidental." (9)

En esta maniobra se revela claramente el fondo político-ideológico, estratégico-militar de la matriz de opinión generada a escala mundial con la complicidad de la dictadura mediática internacional, para justificar una eventual guerra de agresión en contra de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, matriz que ya ha sido puesta a prueba de manera exitosa en los casos de Afganistán e Irak: Presentar a la parte que será agredida como agresor, de acuerdo a una vieja técnica de propaganda, llamada 'estrategia de la gran mentira', termino acuñado por Adolf Hitler en su autobiografía, 'Mein Kampf' (1925). La expresión se refiere a una mentira de una magnitud tan grande que nadie jamás sospecharía que alguien pudiera ser tan imprudente como para distorsionar la verdad de una manera tan infame:

    "[...] La gran mentira siempre tiene una cierta fuerza de credibilidad, ya que la gran masa de una nación es más fácilmente corruptible en las esferas profundas de su naturaleza emocional que consciente o voluntariamente. Por ende y en la simplicidad primitiva de su mente, es más susceptible a ser víctima de una gran mentira que de una mentira pequeña, ya que todos mienten a menudos en asuntos pequeños, mientras que se sentirían apenados a recurrir a falsedades de gran escala. No se les cruzaría jamás por la cabeza fabricar falsedades colosales y no creerían que otros podrían tener la imprudencia de distorsionar la verdad tan infamemente. Aun cuando se les explicaría claramente aquellos hechos que dan prueba de que esto es así, todavía dudarán y hesitarán y continuarán pensando que podría haber otra explicación. La mentira absolutamente imprudente siempre deja una huella, aun cuando haya sido puesta al descubierto; esto es un hecho conocido entre todos los expertos mentirosos de este mundo y entre todos que conspiran juntos en el arte de mentir." (10)

Considerando los innumerables atropellos cometidos en contra de los pueblos del mundo por parte de los gobiernos de los EE.UU. en el pasado y presente, es preocupante cuando un estratega militar norteamericano, director del Instituto de Estudios Estratégicos del US Army War College, asevera que el presidente Chavez está 'alentando a sus seguidores dentro y fuera de Venezuela a perseguir una agenda de confrontación, populista y nacionalista' mediante la imposición de lo que Manwaring llama 'democracia totalitaria' en alusión a la democracia directa, participativa y protagónica (aquél concepto propuesto por Lincoln del gobierno de, por y para el pueblo), y a derrotar la hegemonía norteamericana mediante la conducción de una 'Super-Insurgencia irregular de Cuarta Generación' (11). Este río trae piedras.  

No queremos concluir estas observaciones sin antes mencionar algunas otras piezas de mentira y propaganda como la de Ray Walser, analista político para América Latina de la Heritage Foundation (12), quien asevera en sus 'Cuatro preocupaciones sobre el presidente venezolano Hugo Chávez' que este, primero, brinda asistencia material y santuario a las FARC, segundo, permite a individuos pertenecientes a Hezbollah operar bajo cobertura diplomática venezolana, tercero, obstaculiza esfuerzos anti-narcóticos en la región y cuarto, se opone a formas de gobierno democráticas, (13) falsedades que Walser recicla en sus artículos. Ni mencionar al notorio Otto Reich, quien recientemente ha disparado su artillería desde las páginas del Foreign Policy Magazine con una pieza magistral de distorsión y propaganda belicista, titulada: 'La guerra cubierta de Chávez. Obama debe llamar al presidente venezolano por su nombre: terrorista y traficante de drogas', en la que Reich disemina lo que el título promete: falsedades infames. En este artículo de provocación, Reich retrata al presidente Chávez como un cobarde quien sólo se atreve a apuntar sus armas hacia sus propios ciudadanos indefensos y quien, en materia internacional, no tiene el coraje de entrar abiertamente en combate:

    „ Matones como Chávez no alertan a las víctimas que intentan asaltar. Chávez no combate abiertamente, sino prefiere intervenir de manera cubierta, o bien directamente, o bien mediante su alianza regional 'anti-imperialista', la Alternativa Bolivariana para Las Américas (ALBA), una colección de líderes del más alto volumen con el rendimiento más bajo de la región, [provenientes] de países que incluyen a Cuba, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Ecuador y, hasta junio pasado, Honduras.“  (14) 

Con ello queda más que claro el objetivo de esta avalancha concertada de propaganda y provocación  que se vuelca sobre nosotros desde las plumas de estrategas militares, analistas políticos, ex funcionarios de Estado, columnistas y periodistas, enmarcada en la estrategia de la gran mentira. Estudiar, conocer, difundir y discutir este tipo de propaganda, sus antecedentes históricos, su contexto actual, la 'configuración mental' de sus promotores y los efectos de la propaganda sobre la población, es un paso necesario para poder contrarrestarlo con efectividad.   


(1) Max G. Manwaring, Latin America's New Security Reality: Irregular Assymetric Conflict and Hugo Chávez, August 2007;
(2) Eva Golinger, El ejército de los Estados Unidos prepara doctrina para guerra asimétrica con Venezuela,
(3) Manwaring op.cit. , pág. 1
(4) ibidem
(5) ibidem
(6) ibidem
(7) ibidem , pág. 2
(8) ibidem
(9) ibidem, pág. 3
(10) Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, capítulo 10, citado en:
(11) Manwaring, op. Cit., pág. 3
(12) El 'think tank' conservador más grande e influyente en Washington, padrocinador del notorio Proyecto para un nuevo Siglo Americano.
(13) Ray Walser, Four Concerns about Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, Heritage in Focus, video-clip del 21 de Julio de 2008,
(14) Otto Reich, Chávez’s Covert War: Obama needs to call Venezuela’s president what he is: a terrorist and a drug-trafficker.
Publicado por Jutta Schmitt en 07:25 PM

**** Guerra de Cuarta Generación:
Trastornando nuestras mentes hacia la sumisión total

Por: Jutta Schmitt

En el contexto de la amenaza y provocación abierta que constituye para Venezuela y toda América Latina el establecimiento de siete bases militares estadounidenses en territorio Colombiano (aunado a las tres ya utilizadas por las FF.AA. estadounidenses), la abogada venezolana-estadounidense Eva Golinger advirtió, en el programa de la Hojilla del 14 de Agosto de 2009, sobre una nueva doctrina de guerra emandada recientemente del Pentágono y que se ya se estaría ejecutando en Venezuela: la Guerra Irregular, Irregular Warfare o IW por sus siglas en inglés. Por lo grave de lo expuesto por Eva Golinger en el programa mencionado cabe adentrarnos un poco más al fondo del tema para determinar cómo y de qué manera esta nueva doctrina está vinculada con otros conceptos y realidades como lo son la Guerra de Cuarta Generación y con construccciones ideológicas como lo es la llamada Teoría de las Nuevas Guerras. Esta última es un conjunto de postulados arbitrarios proveniente del ámbito académico y vendido al público como 'teoría' que data del comienzo de este milenio y se ha proyectado rápidamente hacia la esfera de las estrategias de seguridad nacional, tanto de los EE.UU. como también de la Unión Europea. Una vez que conozcamos los vínculos y con ello el contexto general en el que se enmarcan la más recientes doctrinas de guerra, podremos trazar mejor nuestras propias estrategias de defensa y hasta pensar en el diseño de una contra-ofensiva contundente.

En una actualización de la Directiva para la Guerra Irregular, emanada del Departamento de Defensa de EE.UU. que data de diciembre del año pasado, encontramos la siguiente definición del concepto:

„ .. llevar a cabo un combate de manera no convencional, tal como trabajando con fuerzas de seguridad extranjeras, suplentes y movimientos de resistencia indígena para apoyar a Estados frágiles, extender el rango de las fuerzas estadounidenses hacia áreas denegadas o combatir regimenes hostiles.“ (1)

Luego, la misma directiva procede a explicar el por qué de su actualización, refiriéndose en primer lugar a la aparición de 'retos irregulares' que amenazan la seguridad nacional de los EE.UU.:

„La directiva, siendo resultado de más de un año de debate en el Establishment de Defensa, forma parte de una transformación más amplia del papel de las FF.AA. estadounidenses en la medida en que la amenaza de un combate de gran escala en contra de las FF.AA. de otras naciones ha estado desvaneciendo, y nuevos peligros han surgido por parte de sombríos actores no-estadales, tales como terroristas que tienen en la mira a las poblaciones civiles.“ (2)

La idea de que las guerras 'clásicas' o convencionales entre los Estados nacionales tal y como se experimentaron a lo largo del siglo XX son cosas del pasado, y que las nuevas guerras del siglo XXI tienen un carácter esencialmente diferente, no es tan nueva. Hace ya algunos años que las clases dominantes us-americanas y europeas, a través de sus grandes medios de comunicación de masas, han estado sugiriendo a la opinión pública mundial que las guerras del siglo XXI tienen como protagonistas unos 'chicos malos' que operan como 'actores no-estadales', leáse terroristas. Nos dicen, que las guerras del siglo XXI son y serán conflictos armados 'intra-estadales' cuyas causas son endógenas, quiere decir, hechas en casa. Nos dicen además, que este tipo de conflictos que pueden ser de naturaleza étnica, religiosa o político-ideológica, fomentan el terrorismo, abren la puerta al narcotráfico y al crimen organizado y erosionan cualquier esfuerzo de garantizar el orden público y la seguridad interna por lo que conducen necesariamente a los llamados 'Estados 'fracasados'. Los 'Estados fracasados' a su vez ponen en peligro la paz de su región circundante y constituyen de esta manera y sobre todo en un mundo globalizado, un reto de seguridad para los países modernos o 'civilizados'. Estos últimos, por ser 'superiores' en sus valores y desempeños económicos y culturales, están obligados a intervenir en aquellas 'regiones caóticas' para 'ayudar' a sus poblaciones a recobrar o ganar el piso firme de la 'civilización democrático-occidental'.

Hay que tenerlo claro: La difusión y penetración de esta especie de ideas forma parte intrínseca de otra doctrina de guerra, que es la de la Guerra de Cuarta Generación cuyo principal teatro de operaciones es la mente humana tanto de las poblaciones de los países metropolitanos, como las de aquellos países que no forman parte de esta autoproclamada 'civilización democrático-occidental'. El objetivo principal de la Guerra de Cuarta Generación librada a nivel global, es bombardear, debilitar y luego moldear la psiquis para que los pueblos del mundo sucumban ante la realidad del capitalismo globalizado con su crisis económica-financiera, ecológica, social y moral, con su concentración y monopolización perversa de capital y poder en las manos de unas pequeñas elites, y que acepten el surgimiento de un sistema totalitario-represivo-dictatorial a nivel mundial, al que nos hemos referido en escritos anteriores como 'globofascismo'. (3) Específicamente, el objetivo de la Guerra de Cuarta Generación a escala global es lograr que las poblaciones de los países metropolitanos asuman como suya una supuesta 'misión civilizadora y pacificadora' basada en los 'valores universales de la democracia occidental' que debe extenderse por todo el mundo; y que los pueblos de la 'perifería' se rindan y acepten la imposición forzosa del capitalismo neoliberal globalizado y sus 'reglas de juego' como único camino viable para la humanidad y, por ende, desistan de buscar establecer alternativas tal y como sucede aquí en nuestras latitudes.

Los cañones en esta guerra contra la mente y psiquis humana son los medios de comunicación y la artillería, la 'información'. Entre el ejército que moviliza esta maquinaria letal figuran periodistas, columnistas, científicos, militares, estrategas, políticos, asesores, altos funcionarios de Estado, burócratas, diplomáticos y académicos, todos instrumentalizándose consciente o inconscientemente al servicio de la acumulación irrestricta del capital a escala global, no importa sus consecuencias nefastas, mil veces demostradas, mil veces padecidas. La servidumbre de los secuaces se acentúa aun más en tiempos de crisis sistémica como la que estamos viviendo en este momento, de una magnitud que solo suele 'resolverse' por medio de una devastadora guerra mundial.

Conozcamos pues a uno de los guerreros de la Guerra de Cuarta Generación, defensor del capitalismo neoliberal globalizado y expositor de la Teoría de las Nuevas Guerras: Thomas P. M. Barnett, norteamericano, analista militar y geo-estratega del Pentágono, quien identifica en su libro 'El nuevo mapa del Pentágono: Guerra y Paz en el siglo XXI' (4) una zona crítica, albergadora de conflictos internos, posibles estados fracasados y amenazas para la seguridad internacional, zona a la que denomina 'la brecha no-integrada'. Este agujero peligroso abarca a Centroamérica y El Caribe, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, Paraguay, Guyana, Suriname, Guyana Francesa, el continente Africano con excepción de Sudáfrica, Europa Oriental, Medio Oriente con excepción de Israel, Asia Central, Indochina, Indonesia y Filipinas. La 'brecha no-integrada' contrasta con lo que Barnett llama el 'núcleo operante de la globalización', a saber: EE.UU., Canada, México, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Europa Occidental, Rusia, China, India, Japón y Australia. Lo característico de la 'brecha no-integrada' según Barnett es, que está compuesta por países desenganchados de la globalización y de sus reglas del juego, por lo que constituyen una potencial amenaza y un reto para el 'núcleo operante' desde el punto de vista de la política de seguridad de Occidente. Por ende y en nombre de la seguridad estratégica del 'núcleo operante de la globalización' hay que integrar, por la fuerza militar, a los países de la 'brecha no-integrada'. Detrás de toda esta terminología aparatosa se esconde, por supuesto, una realidad sencilla: Se trata de la militarización abierta del capitalismo neoliberal globalizado y su irrestricta expansión hacia todos los rincones del planeta. En palabras del mismo Barnett:

“Si un país pierde ante la globalización o si rechaza buena parte de los beneficios que esta ofrece, existe una probabilidad considerablemente alta de que en algún momento los EE.UU. enviarán sus tropas a intervenir en este país.“ (5)

Las fronteras entre la 'brecha no-integrada' y el 'núcleo operante de la globalización' según Barnett son, convenientemente y en todo caso fluídas, y puede que un sector de la 'brecha no-integrada' termine formando parte del 'núcleo operante' tal y como efectivamente sucedió con Europa Oriental, que fue en buena parte 'integrada' (o más bien absorbida), previa reestructuración neoliberal de sus economías, a la Unión Europea en el marco de su 'Osterweiterung' (expansión hacia el este) del año 2004, año en que Barnett publicó su libro y en que diez nuevos países, entre ellos ocho de la Europa Oriental, se adjuntaron a la Unión Europea, seguidos por otros dos en el 2007. De la misma manera, Barnett tampoco excluye la posibilidad de que, al revés, una parte del 'núcleo operante' decaiga y pase a formar parte del agujero.

El equivalente europeo de Thomas P. M. Barnett es Robert Cooper, diplomático británico, estratega, asesor de la Estrategia de Seguridad Europea del año 2003, consejero principal del Alto Representante de la Política Exterior y de Seguridad Común de la Unión Europea, Javier Solana, y autor del libro: 'La quiebra de naciones: Orden y Caos en el Siglo XXI. (6) Cooper, al igual que su par estadounidense, divide el mundo en dos: un mundo 'postmoderno,' concebido como asociación voluntaria de Estados tipo Unión Europea y caracterizado por su seguridad, transparencia e interdependencia de sus Estados miembros; y un mundo 'premoderno', concebido como un mundo de Estados fallidos, incapaces de mantener su monopolio de la fuerza y de defender a sus ciudadanos ante la actuación de grupos irregulares, factores de desestabilización o el crimen organizado. Cual Maquiavelo postmoderno, Robert Cooper recomienda abiertamente y sin escrúpulos el doble estándar como método de las relaciones internacionales en el 'mundo de los dos mundos' del siglo XXI:

„El reto para el mundo postmoderno es acostumbrarnos a la idea del doble estándar. Entre nosotros operamos con base en las leyes y en una seguridad de carácter abierto y cooperativo. Pero si tratamos con Estados más anticuados, ubicados más allá del continente postmoderno europeo, necesitamos recurrir a los métodos un tanto más rudos que datan de una época anterior: la fuerza, el ataque preventivo, el engaño, lo que sea necesario para tratar con aquellos quienes todavía viven en el mundo del siglo diecinueve en el que cada Estado se centraba en sí mismo. Entre nosotros, nos atenemos a las leyes pero cuando estamos operando en la jungla, consecuentemente tenemos que atenernos a las leyes de la jungla. En el período prolongado de paz que ha vivido Europa, ha habido una tentación de descuidar nuestras defensas, tanto físicas como psicológicas. Esto representa uno de los grandes peligros para el Estado postmoderno.“ (7)

Conste entonces, que tanto desde Norteamérica como desde Europa nos ven a los pueblos que conformamos 'Humania del Sur' y quienes hemos sido víctimas de sus criminales atropellos desde tiempos de la colonización, como 'agujero', 'brecha no integrada', 'mundo premoderno' o 'jungla'. Conste también, que ahora los conflictos en nuestras regiones, productos de nuestras realidades históricas en las que cada étapa desde la colonización ha sido marcada por imposiciones e intervenciones desde los centros capitalistas de poder y muchas veces artificialmente fomentados desde afuera, son conflictos 'hechos en casa', 'tribales', 'inter-étnicos', 'anacrónicos', 'propios de la jungla' pues. Una vez más transpira por cada palabra de la propaganda Occidental el odioso racismo y supremacismo. Hay un detalle interesante, sin embargo, y es cuando Cooper devela el carácter de clase de las 'nuevas' doctrinas de seguridad y defensa al subrayar lo esencial que es para el 'mundo postmoderno' establecer la creencia en una 'misión civilizadora' para convencer a propios y ajenos de sus nobles intenciones:

„Convencer a nuestra propia población a que arriesgue su vida en países caóticos en el exterior requiere que la gente cree que estamos difundiendo un evangelio, prosiguiendo una misión civilizadora o en el peor de los casos, postulando la superioridad natural de nuestra raza. Esto requiere autoestima y convicción. Luego y si queremos ser exitosos, tenemos que convencer a aquellos a los que subyugamos que lo hacemos en virtud de sus mejores intereses y al servicio de un fin trascendental.“ (8)

En su necesidad de controlar las mentes de sus poblaciones con este tipo de 'nuevos mitos' en el marco de la Guerra de Cuarta Generación y para lograr que estas afirmen el carácter cada vez más abiertamente militarista de la Unión Europea, las clases dominantes europeas cuentan con varios eruditos, verdaderos maestros en ocultar los fríos intereses de expansión económica imperial de las élites europeas detrás de una máscara de pinta moral, humanista y de ángel guardián. Entre ellos figuran Mary Kaldor, profesora británica y directora del Centro de Estudios de Gobernabilidad Global en la London School of Economics and Political Science, miembro, en su momento, del Grupo de Estudios de Capacidades para la Seguridad Europea al servicio de Javier Solana, y además autora del libro: 'Guerras nuevas y viejas. Violencia organizada en la Era de la Globalización'. (9) Kaldor argumenta en la misma línea de Cooper, cuando dice que vivimos en un mundo de dos mundos, el del 'cosmopolitanismo moderno', un mundo de paz con sus valores de inclusión, universalismo y multiculturalismo, versus el 'particularismo anticuado, premoderno', un mundo caracterizado por la implosión de aquellos Estados que no han podido con la globalización y cuya autonomía, monopolio de violencia y capacidad de defender a sus ciudadanos ha sido quebrantada, cediendo el espacio a la violencia y al colapso de la democracia. Por ende, Kaldor aboga por el lanzamiento de un 'proceso global civilizatorio' para hacer frente a la amenaza proveniente del mundo premoderno.

El sociólogo alemán Ulrich Beck, en el mismo orden de ideas, clama por un 'Imperio Cosmopolitano Europeo', una especie de ángel guardián el que, para hacer frente a las amenazas del mundo premoderno, debe imponer en este por la fuerza los valores del mundo postmoderno, en nombre del bien de los 'premodernos':

„Surge una política novedosa, postnacional del humanismo militar, esto es, la implementación de un poder militar transnacional que tiene como objetivo hacer valer el respeto a los derechos humanos más allá de las fronteras nacionales. [...] Así es como la guerra se convierte en la continuación de la moral por otros medios.“ (10)

Finalmente, Herfried Muenkler, profesor de Teoría Política en la Universidad Humboldt de Berlin y autor del libro: 'Las Nuevas Guerras' (11), define estas como caracterizadas por la 'des-estatización' y la 'asimetrización'. Esta última se refiere a la singular supremacía militar de los EE.UU. en el mundo a la que cualquier adversario sólo puede responder con estrategias asimétricas como el terrorismo o la guerra de guerrillas, según Muenkler. La 'desestatización' o descomposición de la autoridad estadal ocurre, según Muenkler, en primer lugar en los países del 'Tercer Mundo' y se debe al fracaso de los procesos de construcción de Estados modernos por culpa de sus élites inmorales y corruptas. De esta manera, Muenkler concibe las nuevas guerras como guerras de desintegración de Estados. La pérdida del monopolio de la violencia estadal da lugar al surgimiento de grupos violentos privados, que se financian por el contrabando y el narcotráfico, con consecuencias desestabilizadoras politicas y económicas para la región, por lo que Occidente deber intervenir para evitar desbordamientos mayores. En palabras de Muenkler:

„El terrorismo internacional tiene su refugio en primer lugar allá donde las estructuras estadales han colapsado en el transcurso de una guerra intra-societal. En el mundo globalizado no existe ya región ninguna en la que el colapso de las estructuras estadales no tenga consecuencias graves para las estructuras polítias y económicas globales, por lo que surge, desde el punto de vista de la política de seguridad, la necesidad por la exportación militar de estabilidad. Occidente tiene que ser preparado para asumir la pacificación armada de regiones enteras.“ (12)

'Mundo postmoderno' versus 'mundo de la jungla', 'humanismo militar', 'exportación militar de estabilidad', 'pacificación armada' – esto son las palabras claves de una amplia literatura de la que apenas hemos presentado algunos mínimos extractos y cuyos postulados han penetrado, cual balas a quemarropa, los cerebros de millones de personas en Europa y Norteamérica. Estas edificaciones ideológicas, difundidas en academia, en libros, en la prensa y en documentos estratégicos de seguridad y defensa, conforman nada menos que la legitimación 'moral' de las guerras de agresión en el siglo XXI, desconociendo cualquier noción de soberanía nacional, integridad territorial, autodeterminación de los pueblos y principio de no-intervención por considerarlas nociones arcáicas, premodernas y propias de la jungla. La 'exportación militar de estabilidad' en tiempos recientes hacia la ex-República Yugoslava, Afganistán, Irak y Palestina nos dan una muestra que es lo que nos espera con la proyectada exportación de estabilidad hacia NuestraAmérica con el establecimiento de las bases militares estadounidenses en territorio Colombiano.

Con este marco general en mente, habiendo mostrado el vínculo entre Guerra de Cuarta Generación y construcciones ideológicas como la Teoría de las Nuevas Guerras y tomando en consideración sus concecuencias para el pensamiento y las actitudes de millones de personas en los países metropolitanos, regresamos nuevamente al concepto de la Guerra Irregular, introducido y explicado por Eva Golinger en el programa La Hojilla del 14 de Agosto. Bajo la premisa de que hayamos entrado (o nunca salido) de una era de guerra perpétua, la nueva doctrina de la Guerra Irregular pasa a ser el núcleo de la 'misión militar' norteamericana en el siglo XXI. Sus fines son lograr cumplir con los objetivos estratégicos trazados a mediano y largo plazo mediante métodos no convencionales, jugando al desgaste físico y psicológico del adversario en el marco de una guerra de 'baja intensidad' prolongada en el tiempo que se libra a nivel regional y global. Todo ello para obtener control sobre territorios, recursos naturales y energéticos, corredores geoestratégicos y poblaciones. Se trata de realizar lo que el Departamento de Defensa de EE.UU. denomina en concordancia con los conceptos arriba esbozados, 'operaciones de estabilidad', cuando en realidad el objetivo de dichas operaciones es la desestabilización continua y sistemática de gobiernos adversos o no-alineados con los intereses de los EE.UU., o gobiernos quienes simplemente defienden su soberanía nacional, integridad territorial y autodeterminación – ideas y nociones 'premodernas', 'arcáicas', según las élites globales.

No sorpende entonces que el ya mencionado estratega norteamericano Thomas P. M. Barnett, en un artículo del pasado 10 de Agosto, titulado: 'Las Nuevas Reglas: La Evolución de las Fuerzas Armadas Estadounidenses', opina, en respuesta a las „condenas predecibles de elementos anti-americanos en Suramérica“, que la instalacion de nuevas bases militares en Colombia se debe a un noble 'esfuerzo por promover la estabilidad regional'. (13)

'Operaciones de estabilidad' – por cierto, hay algo acertado en este concepto: Si algo han tratado de estabiliziar sin éxito las clases dominantes globales, es este mismo sistema que es inestable por esencia: el capitalismo. No existe capitalismo sin crisis, no existe crisis sin capitalismo. La crisis económica capitalista es producida periódicamente por las contradicciones internas del sistema, siendo las guerras sus 'soluciones' periódicas. Crisis económcia y su solución, la guerra, son los dos lados de la inestabilidad capitalista. Sin embargo y en cuanto se destruya capital y fuerzas de trabajo en el marco de una guerra, se le da un nuevo aire al sistema mientras que dure la 'reconstrucción' y en ello consiste su perversa estabilidad y perversión estable.

Solo con una conciencia social de clase y una visión consecuentemente internacionalista, antiimperialista y anticapitalista podemos salir ilesos de los bombardeos de manipulación mental y trazar una estrategia que no termine entregándonos a los brazos del monstruo que estamos combatiendo.


(1) New Irregular Warfare Directive, en: Small Wars Journal, ; mi traducción del inglés.
(2) ibidem, mi traducción del inglés.
(3) Jutta Schmitt, Acerca de la función objetiva del Terrorismo y Racismo en la Era de la Globalicazión, en: Franz J. T. Lee & Jutta Schmitt, Venezuela: La Revolución Bolivariana pasando el Rubicón, Editorial IMMECA, Mérida 2006.
(4) Thomas P. M. Barnett, The Pentagon's new Map: War and Peace in the Twenty-First Century, G.P. Putnam's Sons / Penguin Group Inc., New York 2004
(5) Thomas P. M. Barnett, The Pentagon's New Map, ; mi traducción del inglés.
(6) Robert Cooper, The Breaking of Nations: Order and Chaos in the Twenty-First Century, Atlantic Books, London 2003
(7) Robert Cooper, The new liberal imperialism,; mi traducción del inglés.
(8) Citado en: John Keane, Remarks on Robert Cooper's Towards a European Army?, ; mi traducción del inglés.
(9) Mary Kaldor, New and old Wars. Organized Violence in a Global Era; Stanford University Press, Stanford-California 1999.
(10) Ulrich Beck, Ueber den postnationalen Krieg, en: Blaetter fuer Deutsche und Internationale Politik, Nr. 8 / 1999, S. 987, ( mi traducción del alemán.
(11) Herfried Muenkler, Die neuen Kriege, Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek 2002
(12) ibidem, pág. 221, mi traducción del alemán.
(13) Thomas P. M. Barnett, The New Rules: The Evolution of the U.S. Military,
Publicado por Jutta Schmitt en 01:44 PM
Etiquetas: Bases militares en Colombia, Guerra de Cuarta Generación, Guerra Irregular, Resistencia Latinoamericana, Teoría de las Nuevas Guerras
Suscribirse a: Entradas (Atom)

Saturday, 26 September 2009

Kwame Nkrumah: La Cara Oscura de la Revolución Bolivariana

Kwame Nkrumah: La Cara Oscura de la Revolución Bolivariana

Por: Franz J. T. Lee
Por cierto, América Latina y Venezuela tienen que crear su propia práxis y teoría revolucionaria, realizar su propio socialismo, sin embargo, no podemos permitir, que por ignorancia se repiten los errores fatales que ocurrieron en otras partes en cuanto a unidad e integración se refiere, por ejemplo, en los continentes africano y asiático ya casi medio siglo atrás.

Nuestras relaciones Bolivarianas actuales con Africa no deberían ser solamente de carácter diplomático, económico o comercial; por causa de nuestro propio avance emancipatorio, tienen que ser todo en uno, históricas, sociales, globales y emancipatorias. Sólo de esta manera no hará falta de ir hacia el Norte, el Este o el Oeste, sino derecho hacia delante.

Tenemos que conocer y aprender de las experiencias revolucionarias del pasado, para que la Revolución Bolivariana sea capaz de trascender las vendettas parroquiales y miopes tanto como las actuales piedras de tranca imperialistas y así inventar nuevas armas sociales para defendernos contra los feroces ataques yanqui actuales, el Leviatán inescrupuloso y mentiroso de los medios masivos, para superar al globo fascismo, es decir, para ser invencibles y para introducir nuestro propio socialismo, junto con aquellos de otros, especialmente de Africa, a escala mundial.

Esto es de qué se trata la profundización de la revolución, la revolución socialista, la revolución permanente.

Por todas estas razones hay que estudiar concientemente la totalidad de las relaciones y eventos trans-históricos iguales, desiguales y combinados a nivel mundial. Hay que aprender y estudiar las lecciones de las revoluciones africanas del pasado y del presente, que involucran la integración continental y la unión solidaria, para enriquecer nuestros propios esfuerzos emancipatorios latinoamericanos.

Aquí y dentro de este breve comentario no podemos profundizar mucho las acciones y los pensamientos diarios de los diferentes líderes revolucionarios entre los titanes africanos, por ejemplo de Kwame Nkrumah o de Patrice Lumumba, tampoco podemos tratar con muchos detalles a sus numerosas obras científicas y filosóficas.

Solamente podemos seguir la pista para animar a nuestros camaradas Bolivarianos de estudiar otros idiomas, comprender otras visiones, aprender de la experiencia liberatoria africana, pero también para evitar los resultados catastróficos de la desunión continental, la colaboración imperialista y la traición criminal de las más profundas aspiraciones, sentimientos y deseos de millones de personas oprimidas y explotadas. Las paralelas africanas – dentro del tiempo y espacio histórico desigual – a las actuales situaciones en América Latina y al Presidente Chávez, son fascinantes y son tan obvias, así que sólo de vez en cuando haremos algunas referencias específicas.

Todo lo que decimos aquí, concierne directamente a la Revolución Bolivariana.

Al lado de Patrice Lumumba, Frantz Omar Fanon, Nelson Mandela y otros, Kwame Nkrumah, uno de los más grandes líderes y revolucionarios africanos de la época de la “descolonización” y de la introducción de la neo-colonización europea y norteamericana, nació en Nicroful, una colonia británica en la Costa de Oro, el 21 de septiembre de 1909. Originalmente se llamó Francis Nwia-Kofi, sólo luego, en 1945 cambió su identidad a Kwame Nkrumah. En 1935 se fue para EE.UU. como profesor amaestrado; hasta 1945 se dedicó allá mismo a los estudios universitarios.

En 1945, junto con George Padmore y otros futuros líderes africanos, participó en la organización del Sexto Congreso Pan-Africano en Manchester, Inglaterra. Dos años después regresó a la Costa de Oro (hoy Ghana) y en 1949 fundó la Convención Partido del Pueblo (CPP). En 1950, durante un grave estallido social que inundó al país, fue llevado preso. En las elecciones de 1951 ganó su partido político, el CPP, y Nkrumah fue liberado, para formar el nuevo gobierno que llevó a Ghana a la independencia en 1957. Igual a Chávez, Nkrumah fue encarcelado, porque defendió los derechos de las masas coloniales empobrecidas, y luego llegó al poder, como resultado de elecciones democráticas.

En 1960 Ghana se declaró República y dos años después, en agosto de 1962, en Kulungugu, en la Región Norteña, Nkrumah ya se había convertido en blanco de los “escuadrones de la muerte” británicos e internacionales de la CIA; por suerte se salvó del asesinato.

Lo qué toca a nosotros especialmente aquí en América Latina y Venezuela, es la política radical pan-africana de Nkrumah, que está explicada en su obra, “Africa tiene que unirse”, la fundación de la “Organización de la Unión Africana” (OAU) en 1963, e igual a Fidel Castro, su apoyo incondicional a todos los movimientos revolucionarios y anti-coloniales de Africa y de otras partes.

Sin embargo, precisamente como nuestro Presidente Hugo Chávez, experimentó las mismas campañas odiosas de difamación a nivel tanto nacional como internacional y los ataques viciosos de los medios masivos globales. Además, durante un viaje oficial a Beijing, China y a Hanoi, Vietnam del Norte, fue tumbado a través de un golpe militar, que fue organizado por el Servicio Secreto Británico y apoyado por sus sanguinarios aliados globales en 1966.

Pasó el resto de su vida en el exilio en Guinea, albergado por su amigo político, el Presidente Sekou Touré; allá en Conakry continuó escribiendo sus libros. El 27 de abril de 1972, durante un tratamiento médico contra el cáncer, murió en Bucarest, Rumania. Sin embargo, hasta el día de hoy, su sueño diurno revolucionario sobre unos “Estados Unidos de Africa” liberados sigue vivo.

Entre sus escritos políticos revolucionarios más famosos, que comentaremos más adelante, se encuentran los siguientes:

1947: "Towards Colonial Freedom" (Hacia la Libertad Colonial)

1957: "African Socialism Revisited" (Volver al Socialismo Africano)

1961: "I speak of Freedom" (Hablo de Libertad)

1963: "Africa Must Unite" (Africa tiene que unirse)

1964: "Consciencism: Philosophy of the African Revolution" (El Consciencismo: La Filosofía de la Revolución Africana)

1965: "Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism" (El Neo-Colonialismo, la última fase del Imperialismo)

1968: "Handbook for Revolutionary Warfare" (Manual para la Guerra Revolucionaria)

1970: "Class Struggle in Africa" (Lucha de Clases en Africa)

1973: "Revolutionary Path” (Sendero Revolucionario)

Aquí solamente comentaremos de manera general sobre esos trabajos teóricos y los serios intentos de convertirlos en práxis revolucionaria en Africa.

Inmediatamente cuando fue obvio lo qué iba a hacer, los grandes medios masivos nacionales e internacionales difamaron a Nkrumah como un peligroso “dictador”, un “tirano” sanguinario que sufrió de un “culto de personalidad” psicopatológico, que levantó estatuas de su imagen en todo Ghana y que formó un Estado comunista unipartidista y no-democrático.

Bueno, esto no es nada nuevo, nosotros los Venezolanos y los Cubanos ya sabemos todo esto, especialmente las campañas de desinformación, las mentiras maestras, el gran negocio y las conspiraciones desestabilizadoras.

Para ser breve, para llevar a cabo la Libertad Continental, enfatizó la Unión Africana, que describió en su obra “Africa tiene que unirse” y junto con otros, en 1963, fundó la “Organización de la Unión Africana”, incluyendo su Comité de Liberación. Contra qué se dirigió la integración africana y la lucha de clases lo explicó detalladamente en su “Neocolonialismo, la última fase del Imperialismo”.

En este trabajo manifestó que el neocolonialismo moderno – hoy día también llamado “neoliberalismo salvaje” – con su democracia e independencia política chimbas, representa el imperialismo tardío en su fase final y probablemente más peligrosa. La esencia social del neocolonialismo es que en realidad el Estado – decorado con todo tipo de joyas democráticas, con soberanía nacional e internacional y supuestamente políticamente independiente – es ideológicamente dirigido por completo desde afuera, desde los países metropolitanos.

Concluyó que también es la peor forma del imperialismo mismo; para aquellos quienes lo practican, significa poder global sin responsabilidad y para aquellos que lo sufren, significa explotación sin fin y sin remedio. (Véase: Kwame Nkrumah: Neo-colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism, Panaf, London, 1974, p. 9-11.)

Para liberar las masas africanas oprimidas de sus complejos de inferioridad, sus relaciones amo-esclavo, sus ilusiones éticas y religiosas y sus ideologías coloniales y racistas, desarrolló una práxis científica y una teoría filosófica específica para la emancipación africana en su obra “Consciencism: The Philosophy of the African Revolution”.

Especialmente válido para el Movimiento Bolivariano entero, lo siguiente es lo que entendió por una práxis y teoría revolucionaria y dialéctica:

“Revoluciones son generadas por hombres, hombres que piensan como hombres de la acción y actúan como hombres del pensar. ... Preferimos el auto-gobierno peligroso a la servidumbre tranquila”.

Cuando regresó de la Conferencia de Bandung en 1955, Nkrumah era convencido que el socialismo liberaría a Africa de los vicios capitalistas del mercado mundial, sacando Ghana y otros países del “Tercer Mundo” de los tentáculos del sistema de comercio colonial, reduciendo así su dependencia del capital y la tecnología extranjera. En otras palabras, igual que el Presidente Chávez manifestó: “El camino es el Socialismo!”

Sin embargo, Ghana, que ya se había reducido a una economía colonial y monocultural de la producción de cacao, que dependía de los precios en el mercado mundial, no tenía un chance real de alcanzar la industrialización masiva. Los diferentes proyectos económicos costosos, que introdujo Nkrumah, generalmente no tenían éxito. Dejar caer el precio del mercado de cacao fue precisamente el arma económica que utilizó el imperialismo mundial para quebrantar este paradigma revolucionario, impidiendo así toda forma de una posible y futura independencia económica. (Véase también:

Igual que hoy Presidente Chávez de Venezuela, más que 40 años atrás, Nkrumah llegó a la conclusión lógica que para mucho tiempo los efectos capitalistas, coloniales y neocoloniales iban a permanecer en Africa, salvo si pasa algo muy radical para cambiar drásticamente este estatus quo tan explotador y dominador.

Nkrumah vio el socialismo como el camino a seguir. Sin embargo, para preservar los valores humanos africanos, en el espíritu de Frantz Omar Fanon, para crear una identidad original y auténtica de la emancipación africana, se distanció del ideológicamente infectado “Socialismo Africano” de muchos otros “líderes” del movimiento de liberación.

En “Lucha de clases en Africa” analizó las estructuras sociales específicas de Africa, los conflictos sociales internos y externos y en “Sendero Revolucionario” indicó el camino de la lucha armada, que hay que seguir.

En este trabajo de 1970, ya fuera del poder, Nkrumah señaló que el único y verdadero camino hacia la independencia total en Africa, Asia y América Latina era a través de la “lucha de clases”. Analizó las estructuras de clase en la verdadera situación histórica africana y en acuerdo con Fanon, concluyó que la alianza entre los campesinos y los trabajadores de Africa, liderada por su vanguardia revolucionaria, debería liberarlos por medio de la lucha armada de sus amos coloniales fascistas. A nivel político, los trabajadores urbanos ganarían sobre los campesinos progresistas y llevarían a la potencial revolución nacional hasta los sectores rurales. Esos “condenados de la tierra”, esta base popular millonaria le dará a la Revolución Africana su verdadero vigor y fuerza de combate.

Antes, en 1968, en su “Manual para la Guerra Revolucionaria”, que fue escrita para las guerrillas africanas, explicó concretamente la auto-defensa armada y la futura construcción de un Ejército de Liberación Pan-Africano contra el imperialismo y el fascismo global. (Véase: Kwame Nkrumah; Handbook of Revolutionary Warfare, I. P., New York, 1980.)

Ya en aquel entonces, Nkrumah sugirió urgentemente la formación de una organización militar continental efectiva, para planificar las futuras tácticas y estrategias de una auto-defensa de la Revolución Africana al estilo de Fanon. Hizo propuestas concretas para la coordinación política y militar de la lucha armada emancipatoria.

En la segunda parte de su “Manual” resumió las experiencias de la guerra de guerrillas y resistencia popular armada en Rusia Soviética, China, Vietnam, Argelia y Cuba. Enfatizó que la venidera lucha revolucionaria global contra el imperialismo y neocolonialismo es lógica e inevitable; no tenemos el lujo de una alternativa, estamos enfrentando una necesidad liberatoria, la dimensión de esta respuesta revolucionaria armada al imperialismo es tan inmensa que Africa misma. Según él, la lucha armada de los pueblos de Africa es la forma más alta de la acción política, de la práxis social y podría ser el catalizador continental para iniciar el fuego humano global, que extingue el neocolonialismo para siempre. (Handbook of..., p. 42-56.)

Ya tan temprano como en 1963, en su famosa obra “Africa tiene que unirse”, inter alia, sugirió la formación de lo siguiente:

A. Un mercado común para Africa;

B. Una moneda única para Africa;

C. Un Banco Central para Africa;

D. Una zona financiara común para Africa;

E. Un sistema de comunicación continental africano;

F. Una fuerza armada continental para Africa.

Obviamente esto fue demasiado para el imperialismo europeo y norteamericano en Africa, y tenía que acabar con Patrice Lumumba, Frantz Omar Fanon y Kwame Nkrumah.

En Ghana, como ya señalamos, el gobierno de Nkrumah fue tumbado en 1966, y fue reemplazado exitosamente por regímenes marionetas derechos e izquierdistas. Su “Organización de la Unión Africana” degeneró en un programa de entrevistas de traidores neocoloniales y ni siquiera Khadafi de Libia podía salvarla. Su Comité para la Liberación apoyó a “movimientos de liberación” y “luchadores para la libertad” reformistas y neocoloniales.

La versión africana del ALCA norteamericano llegó en forma de la Nueva Asociación para el Desarrollo Africano (NEPAD) “como visión y marco estratégico para el Renacimiento Africano”, que Thabo Mbeki de la Sudáfrica post-apartheid glorificó tan elocuentemente. El NEPAD neocolonial fue bautizado con honores por la OAU – originalmente fundada por Nkrumah – en su 37 cumbre en julio de 2001. Antes Argelia, Egipcio, Nigeria, Senegal y Sudáfrica obtuvieron el mandato de producir “un marco de desarrollo socio-económico para Africa”.

A primera vista, los principios, las prioridades y los programas del NEPAD, igual que en el caso del ALCA, parecen plausibles, sustentables y adecuados, sin embargo, vistos desde más cerca, no tienen nada que ver con integración africana, independencia, socialismo y emancipación.

Al contrario, el NEPAD quiere “construir la competitividad entre países africanos y el continente”; para “asegurar, que todas las asociaciones con NEPAD están vinculadas con los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio”; etc. Su programa de acción “es una iniciativa para el desarrollo sustentable holística, comprensiva e integrada para el reavivamiento de Africa”.

Bien, no hay señas de ALBA de Chávez algunas y en ninguna parte. Patrice Lumumba, Frantz Omar Fanon y Kwame Nkrumah, incluyendo a José Martí y Simón Bolívar, voltearían en sus tumbas, si podrían ver lo que nuestros actuales “grandes líderes” africanos entienden por unión, integración y emancipación.

Por cierto, Africa es la cara oscura de la Revolución Bolivariana, Europa es su pálida pesadilla reformista, Norteamérica es su calamidad nazi descarada.

La mayor parte de nuestros actuales e inmediatos esfuerzos emancipatorios latinoamericanos se forma de lo que hace 40 años atrás Kwame Nkrumah ya estaba soñando, en base de experiencias revolucionarias globales del pasado, tenemos que construir nuestro ALBA, nuestra “Organización para la Unión Americana”, nuestro Socialismo.

Finalmente, Kwame Nkrumah nos enseñó lo siguiente: “La mejor manera de aprender de ser un país independiente y soberano es ser un país independiente y soberano”.

Kwame Nkrumah: The dark face of the Bolivarian Revolution

Kwame Nkrumah: The dark face of the Bolivarian Revolution

By Franz J.T. Lee

Kwame Nkrumah: The dark face of the Bolivarian Revolution
 Surely, Latin America and Venezuela have to create their own revolutionary praxis and theory, to realize their own socialism, however, out of ignorance we should not repeat the fatal mistakes, concerning unity and integration, that occurred elsewhere, for example, on the African and Asian continents already nearly half-a-century ago.

Our current Bolivarian relations to Africa should not be only diplomatic, economical or commercial; for the sake of our own emancipatory advancement, they have to be, all in one, historical, social, global and emancipatory.

Only in this way, we need not go North, East or West, but straight forward.

We have to know, to learn from past revolutionary experiences, in order that the Bolivarian Revolution could transcend myopic, parochial vendettas, the current imperialist stumbling-blocks, and henceforth invent new social arms to defend ourselves against the current, fierce Yankee attacks, the unscrupulous, lying Leviathan of the mass media, to surpass global, world fascism, that is, to be invincible, to introduce our own socialism, together with those of others, especially of Africa, on a world scale.

This is what deepening of the revolution ... socialist, permanent revolution ... is all about.

For all these reasons, we have to study conscientiously the totality of the equal, unequal and combined trans-historical relations and events on a world scale. We have to learn and study the past and present African revolutionary lessons of continental integration and solidaric unity, to enrich our own Latin American, emancipatory endeavors.

Here, in a short commentary, we cannot go into much detail concerning the daily actions and thoughts of the various titanic, African revolutionary leaders, for example, of Kwame Nkrumah, of Patrice Lumumba, also not delve profoundly into their numerous scientific and philosophic works.

We can only blaze the trail, to encourage our Bolivarian comrades, by studying other languages, to understand other views, to learn from the African liberatory experience, but, also to avoid the catastrophic results of continental disunity, imperialist collaboration and criminal betrayal of the deepest aspirations, sentiments and wishes of millions of oppressed and exploited peoples. The African parallels ... in unequal historical space and time ... to the current situations in Latin America, to President Chávez, are fascinating, so obvious, thus, only here and there we will directly make some specific references.

Everything said here, directly concerns the Bolivarian Revolution.

Next to Patrice Lumumba, Frantz Omar Fanon, Nelson Mandela and others, Kwame Nkrumah ... one of the greatest African leaders and revolutionaries, in the epoch of "decolonization", of launching European and North American neo-colonization ... was born in Nicroful, in the British-ruled colony, the Gold Coast, on September 21, 1909. Originally he was named Francis Nwia-Kofi, only later in 1945, he changed his identity to Kwame Nkrumah. In 1935, as a trained teacher, he left for the USA; till 1945, there he further pursued university studies.

In 1945, together with George Padmore and other future African presidents, he participated in the organization of the Sixth Pan-African Congress in Manchester, England.
Two years later, he returned to the Gold Coast, the future Ghana, and in 1949, he founded the Convention People's Party (CPP)
In 1950, during heavy social upheavals, that swept across the country, he was jailed. In the elections of 1951, his political party, the CPP, won, and he was liberated, to form the new government that led to the independence of Ghana in 1957.
In 1960 Ghana was declared a republic, and two years later, in August, 1962, at Kulungugu, in the Northern Region, he was already a target for the British and international CIA "Death Squads"; luckily he escaped assassination.
What concerns us especially here in Venezuela and Latin America, is Nkrumah's radical Pan-African policy ... explained in his work, "Africa Must Unite" ... the formation of the "Organization of African Unity" (OAU) in 1963, and like Fidel Castro, his unconditional support of all revolutionary, anti-colonial movements in Africa and elsewhere.

However, just like our President Hugo Chavez , he experienced the same national and international hateful slandering campaigns, the vicious attacks of the global mass media. Furthermore, while on an official trip to Beijing, China, and to Hanoi, North Vietnam, he was overthrown by a military coup, organized by the British Secret Service and its global, bloodthirsty allies in 1966. He spent the rest of his life in exile, aided by his friend, President Sekou Toure of Guinea; there, in Conakry, he continued writing his books. On April 27, 1972, while receiving medical treatment against cancer, he died in Bucharest, Romania. However, till this day, his revolutionary daydream about a liberated "United States of Africa" still lives on.

Among his most famous political, revolutionary writings, which we will comment below, are the following:

1947: "Towards Colonial Freedom"

1957: "African Socialism Revisited"

1961: "I speak of Freedom"

1963: "Africa Must Unite"

1964: "Consciencism: Philosophy of the African Revolution"

1965: "Neo-Colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism"

1968: "Handbook for Revolutionary Warfare"

1970: "Class Struggle in Africa"

1973: "Revolutionary Path

Here we will just comment generally about these theoretical works and the serious attempts to convert them into revolution praxis in Africa.

Immediately, when it became clear what he was up to, in the huge national and international mass media, Nkrumah was slandered as a dangerous "dictator", a blood-thirsty "tyrant", suffering from a psychopathological "personality cult", putting up huge statues of himself all over Ghana, and of forming a one-party, communist, undemocratic State.

Well, we really want news, we in Venezuela and Cuba, already know all these, especially their relations to dis-information campaigns, big lies, big business and destabilization conspiracies.
In a nut-shell, to accomplish Continental Freedom, he emphasized African Unity, described in his work "Africa Must Unite", and with others, in 1963, he founded the "Organization of African Unity", including its Liberation Committee. Against what African integration and class struggle were directed he narrated in detail in his "Neocolonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism".

In this work, he stated that modern neo-colonialism ... nowadays also called "savage neo-liberalism" ... with its fake democracy and political independence, represents late imperialism in its final, and perhaps most dangerous stage. The social essence of neo-colonialism is that ideologically the State ... adorned with all kinds of democratic gems, with national and international sovereignty, supposedly politically independent ... in reality, is completely directed from outside, from the metropolitan countries. He concluded that it is also the worst form of imperialism itself; for those who practice it, it means global power without responsibility, and for those who suffer under it, signifies endless exploitation without any remedy.

(See: Kwame Nkrumah: Neo-colonialism, the Last Stage of Imperialism, Panaf, London, 1974, p. 9-11.)

To liberate the oppressed Africans masses from their inferiority complexes, master and slave relations, ethical and religious illusions and colonial, racist ideologies, in his work, "Consciencism: The Philosophy of the African Revolution", he developed a specific scientific praxis and philosophic theory for African emancipation.

Especially valid for the whole Bolivarian movement, this is what he understood by dialectical, revolutionary praxis and theory:

"Revolutions are brought about by men, by men who think as men of action and act as men of thought. ... We prefer self-government with danger to servitude in tranquility."

Returning from the Bandung Conference in 1955, Nkrumah was convinced that socialism would liberate Africa from the capitalist vices of the world market, moving Ghana and other "Third World" countries, out of the tentacles of the colonial trade system, hence reducing their dependence on foreign capital and technology. In other ways, like President Chavez, he stated; "Socialism is the Path!"

However, Ghana, already reduced to a colonial, mono-cultural economy of cocoa production, dependent on world market prices, had no real chance of achieving massive industrialization. The various economic, expensive projects that Nkrumah launched, were generally unsuccessful. By dropping the market price of cocoa, this was precisely the economic weapon that world imperialism used to crush this revolutionary paradigm, thus preventing all forms of possible, future, economic independence.

(Also, see: )

Like President Chavez of Venezuela today, more than forty years ago, Nkrumah arrived at the logical conclusion that for a very long time, the capitalist, colonial and neo-colonial effects were going to stay in Africa, unless something very radical happens to drastically change this exploitative, dominating status quo. He saw socialism as the path to follow. However, to preserve African human values, in the spirit of Frantz Omar Fanon, to create an original, authentic African emancipatory identity, he distanced himself from the ideologically infested "African Socialism" of many other "leaders" of the liberation movement.

In "Class Struggle in Africa" he analyzed the specific social structures of Africa, the internal and external social conflicts, and in "Revolutionary Path", he indicated the road of armed struggle to be taken.
In this writing, in 1970, already thrown out of power, Nkrumah indicated that the only real road towards total independence in Africa, Asia and Latin America, was via the "class struggle". He analyzed the class structures in the real African historical situation, and, in accordance with Fanon, concluded that the alliance of the peasants and workers of Africa, led by their revolutionary vanguard, should liberate themselves by armed struggle from their colonial, fascist masters. Politically, the urban workers should win over the progressive peasants and take the potential national revolution to the agricultural, rural sectors, to the countryside. These "wretched of the earth", this millionfold popular base, will give the African revolution its true vigor and striking force.

Later, in 1968, in his "Handbook for Revolutionary Warfare", written for the African guerrilleros, concretely he explained armed self-defense, and the future construction of a Pan-African Liberation Army, against global imperialism and fascism.

(See: Kwame Nkrumah; Handbook of Revolutionary Warfare, I. P., New York, 1980.)

Already then, in 1968, Nkrumah urgently suggested the establishment of an effective, continental, military organization, to plan the future tactics and strategies for Fanonian self-defense of the African Revolution. He made concrete proposals for the political and military co-ordination of the emancipatory, armed struggle.

In the second part of his "Manual", he summarized the experiences of guerrilla warfare and popular armed resistance in Soviet Russia, China, Vietnam, Algeria and Cuba. He emphasized that the coming global revolutionary struggle against imperialism and neocolonialism is logical and inevitable; we do not have the luxury of an alternative, we are facing a liberatory necessity, the dimension of this armed revolutionary answer to imperialism is as immense as Africa itself. According to him, the armed struggle of the peoples of Africa is the highest form of political action, of social praxis, it could be the continental catalyzer to spark off the global human fire to extinguish neo-colonialism forever. (Handbook of..., p.p. 42-56.)

As early as 1963, in his famous work, "Africa Must Unite", inter alia, he suggested the establishment of the following:

A. A Common Market for Africa;

B. A Common Currency for Africa;

C. A Central Bank for Africa:

D, A Common Monetary Zone for Africa;

E. An African Continental System of Communication;

F. A Continental Armed Force of Africa.

Obviously this was too much for European and North American imperialism in Africa, they had to get rid of Patrice Lumumba, Frantz Omar Fanon and Kwame Nkrumah.

In Ghana, as we related, Nkrumah's government was overthrown in 1966, and was replaced successively by rightist and leftist puppet regimes. His "Organization of African Unity" degenerated into a Talk Shop of Neo-Colonial Quislings, not even Khadafi of Libya could save it anymore. Its Liberation Committee supported reformist, neocolonial "liberation movements" and "freedom fighters".

The African version of the North American ALCA came in the form of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) "as vision and strategic framework for Africa's Renaissance", that Thabo Mbeki of post-Apartheid South Africa so eloquently glorified. The neo-colonial NEPAD was honorably baptized by the OAU ... originally founded by Nkrumah, ... at its 37th summit meeting in July 2001. Earlier, Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal and South Africa were given the mandate to produce "a socio-economic development framework for Africa".

On their face value, the principles, priorities and programs of NEPAD, like in the case of the ALCA, seem plausible, sustainable and adequate, however, seen at a closer look, they have nothing to do with African integration, independence, socialism and emancipation.

On the contrary, the NEPAD wants to "build the competitiveness of African countries and the continent"; to "ensure that all Partnerships with NEPAD are linked to the Millennium Development Goals"; etc. Its program of action "is a holistic, comprehensive and integrated sustainable development initiative for the revival of Africa."

Well, no sign of Chavez' ALBA anywhere. Patrice Lumumba, Frantz Omar Fanon and Kwame Nkrumah, including Jose Marti and Simon Bolivar, would turn in their graves, if they could see what our current African "great leaders" understand by unity, integration and emancipation.

For sure, Africa is the dark face of the Bolivarian Revolution, Europe is its pale-faced reformist nightmare, North America is its bare-faced nazi plague.
The lion's share of our current, immediate Latin American emancipatory tasks is composed of that what Kwame Nkrumah forty years ago was already daydreaming about, On the basis of past, global, revolutionary experiences, we have to construct our ALBA, our "Organization for American Unity", our Socialism.

Finally, Kwame Nkrumah taught us: " The best way of learning to be an


Venezuela  News  Bulletin

Nuestros Libros Más Recientes / Our Latest Books
(IMMECA, Mérida, Marzo 2009).



¿Quién emancipará a Venezuela?
Apuntes teóricos
Por Franz J. T. Lee

                                            (SEGUNDA EDICIÓN, JULIO, 2009)
                                                        Depósito legal: LF96520099001236
                                            ISBN: 978-980-12-3771-6

Súper depresión: ¿Crisis Económica o Colapso
Sistémico del Capitalismo?

Por Franz J. T. Lee

                                            (SEGUNDA EDICIÓN, JULIO, 2009)
                                                        Depósito legal: LF96520093301239
                                                        ISBN: 978-980-12-3770-9

En defensa del proceso revolucionario en Venezuela
Apuntes para la elaboración de una estrategia
revolucionaria, bolivariana y socialista
en tiempos de traición

Por Jutta Schmitt

                                                (SEGUNDA EDICIÓN, JULIO, 2009)
                                        Depósito legal: LF96520093201238
                                                             ISBN: 978-980-12-3768-6

Economía Política Marxista:
Una Aproximación

Por: Jutta Schmitt
                                            (SEGUNDA EDICIÓN, JULIO, 2009)
                                            Depósito legal: LF96520093201237
                                            ISBN: 978-980-12-3769-3

Venezuela  News  Bulletin