IS A THINKER? WHO IS A PHILOSOPHER?
HISTORY OF WISDOM
Franz J. T. Lee
introduce Philosophy, firstly, one has to be a Philosopher, has to
philosophize like a philosopher; secondly, to be able to philosophize,
one must be able to act cosmically a n d to think ontically, must be
able to think philosophically, item: must e x i s t ; thirdly, to excel
in Praxis a n d Theory, one must t r a n s c e n d in historic
excellence, must surpass the ordinary, everyday, unilinear, unilateral,
universal labour grayness, has to ascend to the evergreen, triverse
sublime, has to enter the historic realm of Reason and Emancipation,
thus, leaving all universal quagmires and absolutist cesspools behind,
allowing them inexorably to perish in-and-for-themselves.
philosopher, Hegel, did state that "all that comes into being merits
that it perishes", "alles, was entsteht, ist wert, dass es untergeht" ;
this is surely true for unilateral formal logical or universal,
as we understand our terms, the above does not refer to our: Being a n
d Existence AND Transcendence.
only the Gods
are trimensional; also We, You and I, are "divine" . We act a n d think
AND transcend. Acting is Cosmic, is Doing, is Praxis. Thinking is
Intellectual, is Existential, is Theory. Transcending is Surpassing, is
Excellence, is Emancipation. This Historic Trinity, Essence and
Existence AND Transcendence, as Us, as You and I, is the quintessence
of what We understand as Human Being.
We are not
only BEING, only Human Beings, We are not just passive actors on a
world stage. We also exist, We are thinking actors a n d exist as
active thinkers; in nuce: We ere Human Existences.
transcend; moreover, We excel, We reason, We surpass as Human
Transcendences. Until now, the above human qualities, as a totality,
were attributed to the gods, were declared to be divine; mutatis
mutandis they form the very essence of the Absolute Idea, of the World
Spirit, of the Holy Trinity. We do not deny this "absolute truth"; We
only state that We ourselves form a Human Trinity, and much more.
act like Us,
to think like Us, and to excel like Us, presuppose that We have been
all along our lives on our own trail, in our own orbit, trying to
historicize, to emancipate ourselves. For this We need no recruiting,
no conviction, no conscientization. For us, PHILOSOPHY is not
aristocratic: it is not the "queen of sciences", or the Warehouse of
Absolute Truths, or the "ivory tower of cool or small talk". In the
same manner as Science is our Essence, similarly, Philosophy exists as
our thinking and thought process. In this sense, to be homo sapiens, we
have to exist as homo philosophicus, and not be a primitive zoon
politikon or a modern homo faber.
this world like to call their dwelling-place "the fatherland", "das
Vaterland" or "la Patria"; we have nothing against the act of calling
someone or something names, as long as it ends there. Nonetheless, we
are happy that the "master race" has identified for us its natural
habitat and its social environment. We all know what the Patria is and
that sometimes euphemistically it is called "History". Our connotation
of History has to do with the dialectical, better even, with the
dialogical, much more better even, with the diagorical relation
("Bezug") of Nature a n d Society; and surely not with its maltreated
and perverted appearances, which form the very being of the Patria.
understanding of the concept EMANCIPATION has very little to do with
the classic "Emancipation of the Slaves" or with the conventional
"Women's Lib", even less with the "emancipatory" pipe- dreams of the
"New Left", of the "Neo-Right" or the "Neo-Liberal". Our emancipatory
human process is essentially rooted in our modus vivendi, in the
Patria; however, it exists beyond these formal-logical and ideological
boundaries, and it transcends all "historical" utopias, enhancing
anything that we ever could aspire, and which can never be realized on
this god forlorn planet, in this "heart of a heartless world".
"What Is", is "That What Is". This is generally known as Being, for
example, Human Essence is Human Being. Other familiar concepts for
Essence are: esse, essentia, ousía, Wesen, Was, Washeit, Quidditas.
Relevant is not the Word but the Thought which uses the Word as a Tool,
as an Instrument to express itself. We are using the Percept (or
Unigory, see later), usually known as "Concept", COSMOS to express
Essence or Being. Essence is Being, Doing, Acting, Práxis, NATURE.
Essence is Cosmic, but the COSMOS is not only essential; as we will see
later, it is much more than this.
Concept, is not THAT which is used in everyday formal- logical
language, in phrases like "human existence", e.g., "my existence is
threatened", which means that I am going to "rest in peace" pretty
soon. It is a philosophical concept which denotes "That something
exists", simply "that", in German "dass", that something exists at all,
"dass etwas ueberhaupt existiert". Existence also is not "to be there",
Dasein, in Space and Time. For us, it is the "other side" (not
understood in spatial terms) of Essence, its opposite; both Essence a n
d Existence form a Contradiction, better, a Diagory. Existence concerns
Thinking, Thought, Quodditas, Theory, Philosophy, SOCIETY. We use the
Greek term EINAI to mean Existence in the above sense; its general
meaning as "being, esse or sein" is included, but, as we have seen
already, it exists much further than only simple being.
not Concept ) TRANSCENDENCE expresses surpassing, superating,
excelling, "hinueberschreiten", that is, passing from one sphere to
another. This is a philosophic transcept and it includes theological
connotations, but it has no "divine" meanings. It has to do with
Reasoning, with Reason, but it includes Doing and Thinking. This simply
means that it excels as NEITHER ESSENCE NOR EXISTENCE, or expressed in
another way, as Triagory, as Essence a n d Existence AND Transcendence,
in nuce, as HISTORY. It is a Historic Transcept, and Emancipatory
short lectures on the HISTORY OR WISDOM, we will expound, analyse and
debate our philosophic ideas, but we will also criticize the official
"HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY", which ideologically mainly reflects the
historic universal superstructure of alienated Labour, of Alienation
itself. We suggest that our visitors and guests should read the texts
very slowly, repeatedly, and that they should not throw the philosophic
towel in the patrian arena after just a single attempt of ontic combat.
OF WISDOM I
Vadis ? What Is To Be Done ?
Franz J. T. Lee
continue with our Epistemology and Logical Method, let us scrutinize
how the Patria sees its, his "History of Philosophy". Of course, in
this sojourn through the wilderness of the fatherland's "historic"
superstructure, we will apply our theory of knowledge, our method of
thinking and analysis, draw our own intellectual and rational
conclusions, and therewith, enrich our own Science a n d Philosophy.
Whither goest thou ? This answering question presupposes a dialogical
Diagory: "I" a n d "Thou". "I" a n d "Thou" are related; perhaps "I" do
not know where Space)"Thou" goest, also not when (Time), and worse
even, how "Thou" goest (Bezug. Relation, Motion, Velocity).
"going" in Time, and not only in Time, is a Relation, a Bezug. The
Bezug itself has a "whither", it is part and parcel of Cosmos and of
Cosmos Acting ; furthermore, something or somebody is going, is acting,
and it is its, her or his acting. There are zillions of relations, but
this one is a cosmic relation, an act and acting, hence a certain type
of "non-relation". The "quo vadis", the answering question, is asked in
intellectual terms, in a space and time relation, in simple patrian
"whither" has a cosmic, praxical, concrete substratum, a non-relation.
We should recollect here that "non" does not mean "no", no relation
whatsoever, nothing in a patrian "bad" sense ; it simply means what it
denotes, a non-relation, the opposite of a relation, and this is not
nothing. There are relations, non-relations, non-relations a n d
relations, neither non-relations nor relations, etc., zillions of
the space and
time being, we encounter ourselves on the planet, Mother Earth, and "I"
cognize "Thou" going, acting, and "I" want to know, want to cognize
"whither ?" "Thou" is going; how it or she or he acts; why acting just
in a certain way? Why does a capitalist only act to acquire profits?
Whether "Thou" knows anything, knows about the essence a n d existence
of "I" (me), "I" still do not know as yet. To know this, "I" must get a
questioning answer from "Thou".
questions, "I" should at least act, and should express this Act in
words, in language, in a question. And "I" can formulate any question,
and can address it to anything, to anybody, to "Thou". "Thou" can be
Anything: Cosmos, Act, Relation, I Myself, Man, Capital, Einstein,
Marx, a Goat, a Burning Bush, my Computer, etc. The above, Marx had
formulated as follows:
sufficient that Thought aspires towards Reality, Reality itself must
aspire towards Thought".("Es genuegt nicht, dass der Gedanke zur
Wirklichkeit draengt, die Wirklichkeit selbst muss zum Gedanken
of Miletus: What Is The Best?
"Best Man" in
Ancient Greece was the Aristocrat. Everybody was aspiring to be manly,
to act aristocratic. Everybody was looking for the aristocratic essence
of things. To be aristocratic is to be wise, to be a "Wise Man", and
because the Number Seven was the "best", was aristocratic, hence there
could always only be "Seven Wise Men", Seven World Wonders. The "Wise
Men" forgot that Number Seven was the Goddess Diana, Artemis. In any
case, Miletus was already a "man's world", a shipping and commercial
seaport. Man was already winning many a "Desert Storm", many a "veni,
himself a "Wise Man", one of the "Seven Chosen Few", was thinking about
"What Is?", about Essence, about Quodditas. And, true to the
"Zeitgeist", to the "Spirit of His Time", he asked the philosophic
question: What Is The Best? His questioning answer was: "ariston men
hydor" (Water is The Best). "What Is" is Water, "Water" is "What Is":
What Is" is
Best". Thus, the arche, the hyle, cosmos, matter, was still
slave-aristocratic, not yet slave-democratic. This is the road which
"Thou" was still blazing. However, this was already the masculine
philosophic "Quo Vadis?"
"Mythological" Quo Vadis
Thales, Beings on Earth were acting, were trying to express "What Is"
in words, in language. Many were already thinking, were asking
ontological questions. And they were not only "Human Beings", in other
words, not only Male Beings, Ruling, Cratic Beings! "Homo (Man)
Kenyapithecus" or the "Neanderthal Man" probably did not even know that
they were Men, were Machos.
it is true
what our "modern scientists" say, then among these Beings on Earth were
also monkeys, apes and chimpanzees. At least, Charles Darwin already
knew this. And, nowadays we know, that "Humans share 98.5 percent of
their genes with chimpanzees".
the above should be formulated as follows:
share 98.5 percent of their genes with humans." After all, the
chimpanzees are elders, they were born long before the sonorous homo
sapiens saw light on this planet. The above is a typical arrogant manly
"scientific" formulation. These are not redundant remarks, also they
have nothing to do with sophistry or hair-splitting, they indicate what
patrian ideology and hegemony are all about.
"Primitive Man" was not only performing "monkey business", he was also
asking simple, crucial questions. How he asked these questions, by what
method of communication? This is another topic. That he had a "brain",
that he was acting, that is certain, and that is, in the first place,
what concerns us here.
Thales, as early as 2000 B.C., in the slave-owning society of Paranoiac
Egypt, where one of the ancient "Seven Wonders", the pyramids,
reflected a strong "this-sided" modus vivendi, atheistic
crypto-materialist conceptions were rife. In one of the extant papyrus
manuscripts of that remote epoch, we can read: "Man disintegrates and
his body changes itself into earth." In the City of Death, "earth" was
emphasized as an important archaic element. These ancient Egyptians
were very much "down to earth", and for them, "earth" was one of the
magical material elements of "What Is", of Essence.
later, in faraway "Mother India", the Upanishads , the Sanskrit
theosophical and philosophic treatises dealt with cosmic materialist
doctrines. Five primordial elements were expounded: water, air, fire,
time and space. This was long before Thales declared "water" as being
aristocratic, or before Anaximenes of Miletus had declared "air" to be
water evaporates, then it becomes air, truly, air consumes everything."
we find in
ancient India an anticipatory transhistoric fata morgana a priori of
the Milesian School. Around 700 B.C., when Ancient Greece was still
directed from the Oracle of Delphi, the oriental Samkhya School taught
that everything originated from the prakrti , an infinite, eternal,
primordial principle. Furthermore, before the dawn of the "Wise Men" in
Greece, the Chinese Dschou Jan School also taught about five elements :
water, fire, earth, wood and metal. The only philosophic novelty about
Thales, in the age towards monotheism, -- towards God, The Father, The
Son, and The Male Holy Ghost, The Holy Trinity, All-In-One, is that he
made Water a Hen-Kai-Pan, an Unomnia, a One-And-All.
OF WISDOM II
Franz J. T. Lee
Or Bantu Philosophy?
"thought" that is not born in the "Cradle" of "Western Civilization"--
that is, all intellectual and rational reflection prior to Thales -- is
not considered as being "Ancient Philosophy"; for this very reason,
everything else is classified as mythology, theosophy,animism,
superstition or magic. In the previous lecture, we indicated that this
is simply inborn arrogance or well-bred ignorance. Of course, nowadays
as byproduct of the European alma mater, even "Bantu Philosophy" is
being taught at African Universities, but an African Plato or Hegel,
Marx or Trotsky, will never see the Visionary Light, will never leave
the "Cave of Underdevelopment". With sophia or wisdom this attitude
surely had very little to do. However, since the advent of Labour on
Planet Earth, no matter where it was born, essentially it was generated
as a non-relation, and henceforth it persisted as maltreated Nature
vis-a-vis perverted Society, as Alienation per se.
& Original Sin!
"Neolithic Revolution", ever since the Great Agricultural Revolution,
Physical Labour -- no matter its "historical" level, also, no matter
its geographic birthplace - was directed at the Economic Exploitation
of Nature, in the service of "human need", better, in the service of
"human greed" for "survival" purposes. Mother Nature produced "Man" and
she surely did not forget to forge the "survival gene". Labour or Work
was surely not on her production and reproduction agenda. Originally,
the Almighty Yahweh also found his non-labouring human creatures
"good", and he did not plan that "Work" should be performed in the
"Garden of Eden". Only later, when "Man" ate from "the tree of life",
became a "moral" human being, who could distinguish between "good" and
"evil" he was ingloriously thrown out of Paradise, into Hell, into
"History", into the coming Orwellian "1984"; only then "tilling the
soil" with "sweat on the brow" became a historic reality. In nuce, the
"Original Sin" against Mother Nature unravels itself as Labour.
Property is Theft!
ideological superstructure, Intellectual Labour -- no matter its
specific degree of Political Domination -- was produced as the
expression of maltreated Nature and perverted Society. This
Non-Relation, this "and", was and is its "Truth"; all this is
euphemistically called the Patria, Fatherland or Heimat, Culture or
superstructure of the Patria on a global scale was not constructed
exclusively by European philosophers and thinkers, although the latter
provided the "lion's share", as can be verified in the "History of
Philosophy". However, as we already indicated, the privatization of
thought, private property of thought, intellectual property rights, all
fall in the realm of Proudhon's excellent discovery: Property is Theft!
Firstly, a global "discovery and colonization" of "Intellectual Labour"
took place; secondly, it was christianized as "European Thought", and
finally, all traces and relations of "philosophy" to extra-European
intellectual sources were carefully erased, burnt by the Inquisition
fires. Only then, after the intellectual "holocaust" was accomplished,
the "Wise Men", the "Renaissance", the "Reformation", the
"Enlightenment" could flourish ; and there is no doubt about the superb
degree of "European" philosophic genius, about the triumphant forward
march of the Accumulation of Capital.
of Philosophy" or "History of Plagiarism"?
lecture we indicated that crypto-hylozoistic thought was already
developed in Ancient Egypt, India, Iran, China and Japan. Below we will
briefly expound some of these philosophic reflections; after all, India
had been a Great Culture and Civilization long before the dawn of
Hellas. Along the Ganges, already millennia before, physical and
intellectual labour was highly developed, more advanced than anywhere
way we mention this in order to glorify or deify the ancient wise
Indian thinkers, or to belittle the "poor" Europeans who were
practically still trying to descend from the "trees" or to leave the
dark "caves". Au contraire, we are just emphasizing the uneven and
combined development of physical and intellectual labour on a world
scale towards its logical transhistoric Nirvana: Capital, Accumulation,
Profits, Imperialism, Monopoly, Intellectual Property Rights,
Neolithic Revolution, in toto, "mankind" had entered a historic level
of production and reproduction which necessarily created materialist
and idealist conceptions of the world. Of course, related to its level
of physical production, Ancient India had brought forth its own "Wise
Men", teaching panpsychic or hylozoistic materialist doctrines. A
superficial survey of the collections of ancient Indian hymns or
prayers, of the Vedas, dating back to 3000 B.C., will reveal caustic
anti-dogmatism, atheistic and materialist tendencies. It is of interest
to note that the concept "veda", in Sanskrit, does not mean "prayer" or
"hymn", it denotes "knowledge".
tendencies are especially emphasized in the older Upanishads, among
them, Isa, Taittiriya, Svestasvatara, Chandogya, Brhadaranyaka, Kena
and Katha. In these Vedas a strong anti-Brahmanism with materialist
ideological undertones can be detected. The Rgveda, X, 129 states:
knows from where Being came? The Gods only came into Being after It
already existed. - Who can say from where It came?"
materialist-idealist, natural-social contradiction in Indian philosophy
can be traced even in the old epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, also
in the "Laws of Manu". From their very inception, Jainism and Buddhism
had criticized Brahmanism. Until as late as the 4th Century B.C., these
philosophic schools had attacked each other with the same
scientific-philosophic stringency that we are accustomed to in
Platonism, Aristotelianism and Atomism. Numerous Indian philosophers
were hated by the Brahman establishment; they were persecuted and their
the Beginning was Water"
today still, we can read in the Brhadaranyaka-Upanishad that "In the
Beginning was Water", not the "Word", simply Water. Hence, Thales was
not that original after all! The Upanishads were downgraded to
theosophy, and "ariston men hydor" was upgraded to philosophy.
According to the above veda, knowledge: Brahman, the Gods and the World
Itself, all originated from Water. Furthermore, the soul originated
from water, air, earth and fire, and it returns to these elements. Here
we have the complete ancient Greek Philosophy-Chemistry, which formed
the material basis of the Carvaka doctrines. The burning philosophic
issue which had given the Ionians headaches, that is the problem of
sense-perception and cognitive knowledge, was already debated in
Ramayana, by Rama and Jabali, the ancient Indian materialist. Ancient
India had its own "Seven Wise Men", one of them, the famous Brhaspati,
was a kind of "Thales", a hylozoistic materialist, who stated: "Life
originated from Matter" - c'est-a-dire, from prakrti. There was really
"nothing new under the philosophic sun" in Ancient Hellas.
OF WISDOM III
Franz J. T. Lee
a n d Thought
logical method, We are patrian, historic, philosophic, scientific and
human, but We are not ONLY the before-mentioned, We are much MORE. To
understand the official "History of Philosophy" , We have to be patrian
and historic philosophers. Yet, We are not ONLY the aforesaid;
historically, We also have to be THAT a n d to exist AND to transcend
as OURSELVES. In this philosophic "spirit", We will now display some
philosophical reflections about Thinking and Thought; afterwards We
will introduce the natural a n d social environment of the "First
Philosopher", of the "Wise Man", Thales of Miletus.
eviternal boundless cosmic process, Thinking commences somewhence,
nowhence, everywhence; somewhere, nowhere, everywhere; somewhither,
"modern scientists", some twenty-five million years ago, on the "Dark
Continent", with the advent of the Ape Man or Man Ape, Proconsul, the
melodrama of "human history" had begun. Thus, in the bosom of "Mother
Africa", the seeds for cogitare (Thinking) and cogitatio (Thought) were
born. Nonetheless, in the alma mater, officially we are being taught
that around 600 B.C., with Thales of Miletus scientific and philosophic
Thinking and Thought began.
Question par excellence!
certain that the Milesian philosophic "synthesis" was filled with
"cultured" and "civilized" Aurora; measured by "continental" standards,
it was new and original, id est, it was primeval, primogenital,
primordial. Now, what was the "subject" matter of this Milesian archaic
thinking? Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes wanted to know: what is,
what is the arche? What is Being? What is the Essence of Being, of
Things? What is Human Being? What is the Essence of Human Being?
posteriori, it is nearly impossible to decipher what exactly the
Milesians were thinking, what their concepts precisely denoted, but
some erudite scholars have tried to throw light on this sphinxlike
labyrinth. Unfortunately, we have to depend on the "official"
interpretations of these experts, who generally affirm the status quo;
notwithstanding, we will reorientate their elucidations with our own
supersensitive oscillating magnet needle of thinking and thought. As we
indicated in our last lecture, concerning Ancient Greek Philosophy, the
maxim, ex oriente lux, definitively merits academic, educative
Cradle of Western Philosophy
lux! Let us
spotlight ancient Miletus. Many ancient cities, like Babylon, Athens or
Rome, are world-renowned, strange enough, the birthplace of Western
Philosophy is nearly unknown. Yet, between the 8th and 5th Centuries
B.C., Miletus was a flourishing sea-port, which reflected the original
primitive accumulation of Capital in Asia Minor.
of the "Ornament of Ionia" (Herodotus), the Milesian ships sailed in
all directions in the Mediterranean region, a colossal merchant navy,
protected by an invincible war fleet. They were fully laden with
merchandise, with fabrics woven and dyed in its local industry, with
decorated garments carpets and pottery. Its woollens were highly in
demand in Athens and Southern Italy. The famous cloak of Antisthenes of
Sybaris was produced in Ionia; its zones of exotic flowers and
beautiful pictures was a Milesian masterpiece of embroidery in Oriental
style. On all ancient Mediterranean markets Milesians were present.
Beverly Hills & Haute Couture
mighty colonial power, it conquered commercial cities from the
Hellespont to the Black Sea (Euxine). Ionia was also the cradle of
"high society" and "culture". About the ruling classes, A. Jarde, a
French scholar, gave us a vivid picture:
Ephesos, and the other great towns of Ionia, peopled, like Miletus, by
a busy throng of merchants, craftsmen, and sailors, were all the scene
of the like activity and the like wealth. Everywhere there was the same
taste for luxury, the same love of fine fabrics and rich jewels;
everywhere there were the same banquets and festivals. The courtesans
of Ionia were models of elegance and culture, and all antiquity would
marvel at the friend of Pericles, Milesian Aspasia."
its Miss Cosmos International beauty contests, its own "Irene Saez",
the beloved courtesan "wife" of Pericles, Aspasia. Xenophanes of
Colophon vividly portrayed this wealthy class, whose honoured members
were strolling on the Agora "clad all in purple, with their hair
beautifully dressed, shedding the perfume of subtle ointments.
| HISTORY OF WISDOM IV
DATA: THALES OF MILETUS
Franz J. T. Lee
reasonable doubt, for any scholar of the "History of Philosophy" Thales
of Miletus was a "Wise Man", a sophós; in fact, he was the first
philósophos, the Arch-Lover of Wisdom. Let us illuminate this ancient
"Age of Wisdom", the natural habitat and the social environment of this
famous hylozoist, of the Father of Philosophy.
and 6th Century B.C., a hybridous process between Cosmogony and
Philosophy was ushered in: the qualitative leap from magical beliefs to
"scientific knowledge". It is well-known that the most important
cosmogonic sanctuary in Ancient Greece was the Oracle of Delphi, the
Temple of Apollo, the Sun-God, who had extradited the ancient Great
Mother, Gaia. It had the wise inscription: gnothi seautón (Know
Thyself!). This is surely a wise "Commandment" to remember. This oracle
ordained sophía, Wisdom; and its Divine Superintendent was the Goddess
Minerva (Athena). It is pertinent to note that the ancient "Seven Wise
Men" still had their genesis and sanction in Greek mythology and
cosmogony. In this sonorous "group of seven" always appeared: Thales of
Miletus, Solon of Athens and Bias of Priene. Other interchangeable
erudite thinkers were Pittakos of Mytilene, Periander, the Tyrant of
Corinth, Epimenides of Crete, Cheilon and Anarcharsis, the Schyte.
Greek Sophos was a pagan, a chthonic artisan, a banausikos, a
handicraftsman, who also involved himself in matters of the Polis. He
saw his social task as not to be "banausian", not to be a vulgar member
of the community, on the contrary, he wanted to be active, cosmic,
praxical. His praxical real life experiences the Sophos reflected and
reproduced in his mind, in his intellect. This mental product he
expressed as a gnome (Latin: sententia), as a guide for future social
praxis and theory. Truly, this has nothing to do with goblins or
dwarfs, or, in a modern sense, it has no philosophic relation to the
capitalist Gnomes of Zurich, Switzerland. These wise gnomes were
inspired by gnosis, by "Know Thyself"! In essence, Knowledge was
related to "human" power, to social power. If we exclude the gifted
Athenian courtesan, Aspasia, the hetaira of Pericles, we have to
realize that the "Wise MEN" were already well on their way to
patriarchal empiricism, to "Knowledge is Power" (Francis Bacon).
of Heracleitus and Prometheus
intellectual process reflected severe economic and social tension and
conflict in Hellas, especially in the "colonies" of Asia Minor,
particularly in Miletus and Ephesus, the flourishing commercial and
cultural centres. Permanently, social conflicts had haunted Miletus,
the birthplace of Thales. They did not only involve the wealthy social
classes, more so, the "free" population, the slaves, the "wretched" of
Ancient Greece. The latter occasionally killed aristocratic wives and
children; in revenge, in style of the Inquisition, the rulers publicly
burned alive the plebeian underdogs on the market squares.
Gas Chambers and Extermination of Vietcong
Greek colonies such burning, living, non-human torches were serving as
horrendous warnings against any future attempts to change the status
quo, the slave-owning society. Later this practice was continued in the
Greco-Roman Empire, by means of crucifixion, in the "Third Reich" as
gas chambers for "dirty, filthy Jews", and in the Vietnam War, as
extermination of the "communist" Vietcong.
slave hirrient death-cries, and the hesternal Spartacus sparks in
agony, were destined to reach the contemporary colonial, neo-colonial
and anti-imperialist emancipatory movements. In this macabre atmosphere
Thales and "Western Philosophy" were born, and it still flows in this
"river of blood", in this "vale of sorrows".
Learn About Life, For Life
our display of the natural habitat and social environment of Thales of
Miletus. In the last lecture we explained the essence a n d existence
of philosophic gnomes. Generally, a gnome expresses the essence a n d
existence of the philosophy of a specific thinker. For example: pánta
rhei (Everything Flows - Heracleitus) or omnia mecum porto mea (All I
have I carry with me - Bias). Similarly, Thales formulated his
sententia: ariston men hydor (The Best is Water).
above is also valid for us, for us as philosophers. Even more so, for
us the following general "gnome" is quintessential: non scholae, sed
vitae discimus, we learn not for the school, but for life, for our
life. However, we have to be watchful; "wise" formal logical statements
like "What Will Be, Will Be", "Everything Is Possible" and "I believe
that ...", after a while, have an ideological tendency to become, not
watchwords, but catchwords, to become petrified slogans, losing all
their dynamite or dynamism, that is, if they ever had something of the
like. Of course, naked theories or intellectual nudities cannot grasp a
multilogical cosmic a n d ontic "reality", they cannot historicize or
emancipate patrian class-ridden living circumstances and conditions.
There are no capitalistic, industrial "extracts" for the Relation
"Cosmos and Einai", "Nature a n d Society" or "Praxis a n d Theory"; no
Nescafe, no Nesphilosophy can substitute Thinking and Reasoning. The
latter can never ever be produced as "Intellectual Property" in a
Factory of Platonic Education, not in an industrial society, not in a
postindustrial mode of production, nowhere where Labour, Capital and
Profits reign. Nowhere else, except in History, in Emancipation, this
wise don, this free, invincible gift, has its natural a n d social
return to our epicentral philosophic venture, the precise, concise,
original formulation of the Thalean gnome is not preserved. Only
through second-hand information we know about its existence. It was
Plato (427-347 B.C.), Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) and Herodotus (484-425
B.C.) who had informed us about its philosophic existence.
Metaphysics, Aristotle stated that Thales had taught that the arche was
Water. Concerning his historic life, Herodotus (I. 75 and 170) told us
that Thales had prophesied the total eclipse of the sun of May 28, 585
B.C., at the time of the Ionian Wars between Lydians and Medes. Besides
similar fragmentary information, we know very little about him, it is
not even sure whether he ever had written anything.
OF THALEAN PHILOSOPHY
explained to us his philosophic method of reasoning. According to him,
how did Thales come to the philosophic gnome that Water is the
Original, Archaic Principle? Using his simple "common sense", he
argued, because "wood swims on water", consequently, "the earth rests
on water"; furthermore, because a magnet can move iron, hence it must
have a psyche, a moving force.
could smile at
this type of philosophical logic, but we cannot deny ist childlike, not
childish, auroralike nature. Still in the 20th Century, the general
natural scientific hypothesis was prevalent that hydrogen is the arche;
this element forms two-thirds of water, and water forms about
four-fifths of the human body. Relevant for us is that Thales did not
explain the Cosmos as a divine product, or as a gift of Olympus, or as
a material excrement of the World Spirit or Absolute Idea, but he tried
to explain Being-Out-Of-Itself. That he postulated only Being, a sole
Being, only Water, a Single Principle, that is another story, which we
will relate elsewhere.
that Thales was a sophos, "an able craftsman", the originator of "many
skilful discoveries in the arts and other activities". In modern
terminology, Thales was the following, all in one: engineer, navigator,
mathematician, geographer, meteorologist, chemist, physicist,
panpsychologist, viticulturer, merchant and statesman, et hoc genus
omne. Well, no problem, this is precisely what a philosopher should be,
and much, much more. At least, it was still a patrian time, when
philosophía was not yet royal, not yet aristocratic, not yet the "Queen
of All Sciences", seated in the "Ivory-Tower" of the Orwellian
"Republic of Intellect and Reason". All sophia, gnosis and episteme,
all science and philosophy, were represented in the "Democratic
Commonwealth of Knowledge". Those were still the good, old, patrian
days. The industrial epoch of Charlie Chaplin scientifically putting on
caps to filled Coca-Cola bottles, master of this one and only trade,
was still far away off!!! But, as we were told, the viticulturer,
Thales, very carefully, had mixed the necessary ingredients of science
and philosophy into the ancient olive industry, and with superb
marketing success, he had already indicated how Intellectual Labour
could improve financial profits. Ab ovo, even Thales was already on the
of Princes of Darkness
Process, at the level of Ancient Greek "Society", necessitated a new
ideological superstructure, innovative Intellectual Labour, a brand new
"Philosophy". Thales had the "historic" task to introduce this
intellectual novelty, to erect its philosophic materialistic base.
Later Plato would decorate the idealistic roof for this future
accumulation of Capital in the Ancient Mediterranean Region could not
prosper under the outdated ruling cosmogonic outlook of Homer and
Hesiod, under obsolete relations of production. Earthly money, chthonic
exchange values, were already on the order of the day in the ancient
Greek colonies; hylozoism, cryptic materialism had to reflect this
flourishing commercial economy in its ideological superstructure.
Slave-owning Intellectual Labour had to hold water, to express itself
in a maritime philosophic fashion.
phantasmagorias, dwarfs and goblins, were no more suitable to explain
the functions and objectives of a "modern" fleet of trading ships and
its protective "invincible" navy. In everyday life, no manna or nectar
was raining from the topos ouranios, from heaven; on the contrary, hard
cash was flowing, and so did the rivers and the seas, in one word,
everything was flowing, money coins were everything, and in Ionia, in
Miletus, they were flowing like water. Small wonder that "ariston men
IN A NUT-SHELL!
discover, think? Exactly that what a child of its, of his "time", a
healthy body a n d a sane mind logically would deduce.
philosophic field, sensuously Thales had noted that water is wet, is
damp, and that seeds germinate in dampness, that what seeds, insects,
plants and animals nourish on are usually damp and wet; it is water
which gives rise to wetness, to dampness, which brings about ice in
rivers, which evaporates as "air", it is water which comes from the
heavens, and from the bowels of the earth, from the womb of the mother,
in which a child is born. What a keen, a key, a scientific observation,
void of ghosts, angels, devils and gods! It is filled with Agatha
Christie and Sinbad, The Sailor.
Patria, Thales is exceptional: he laid the foundation for the One and
Only, for the Unomnia, for the Hen kai Pan, for the One Great God, the
One Great Man, the One Great Race. Why is Thales consecrated as the
"Father of Philosophy"? Simply because of his intrepid patrian
statement that the arche is unitary, uniform, only flowing in itself,
in flux at rest, alive in death. Motion, Change, can only come from
Inside, from Repose, from the Status Quo. He is the Father of Political
Reformism, of Capitalist Democracy, which only progresses from within,
moves from within, which forever evolves and revolves on the very same
spot. He laid the cornerstone of a Single Unitary Being, a Unified One
Principle, for all patrian philosophers, here and now, and forever
ARISTON MEN HYDOR
| HISTORY OF WISDOM VI
of Miletus (610 - 546 B.C.)
Franz J. T. Lee
Friend, A Pupil
Friend in need,
is a Friend indeed, in deed. Friends are very rare to find on Planet
Earth; to find Friendly Pupils, the sine qua non is first to find the
famous needle, not in the haystack, but in the profound waters of the
Pacific Ocean. Nonetheless, in the philosophic element, in Ionian
turbulent waters, Anaximander found an amigo, a maestro, Thales.
Anaximander was an educated "man", a master of all trades. He was an
astrologist, astronomist, cosmogonist, cosmologist, meteorologist,
geologist, geographer, seismologist, anthropologist, evolutionist, id
genus omne. His famous writing,
(Physis), is lost; only a very important fragment is preserved. By the
way, it should be noted here that the Greek concept "physis" is not
synonymous to the term "Nature" which is in current usage. Mutatis
mutandis, it had the same connotation as the arche or hyle, as the
original principle, as something which eternally gives birth, as an
as Arche !
or not, here we have the first "Chaos" Philosopher, the Father of the
Chaos Theory. The arche of Anaximander is the apeiron, is Chaos, is a
mixture of ALL elements, of even the unknown ones. Also, by the way, in
our Philosophy, Chaos is a trialogical mension, a trimension, of
Nothing (Nihil) in the Postulate: Cosmos a n d Einai AND Nothing (See:
Previous Lectures of Our Home Page). Furthermore, even the known
elements do not appear in the Apeiron, in Chaos, in their known form,
but in their archaic (pure) unknown form. Also, this important
identification a n d differentiation was taken into account in our
-- The Yawning Vacuum ! <
is a mythical concept; it is derived from chanein, which denotes a
ghastful, gaping, yawning vacuum. (See: Hesiod's
116, 700). Later, by Ovid (43 B.C. - 18 A.D.), in his
(I, 7), Chaos is described a a "raw mass". Anaximander conceptualized
"Chaos" as a hylozoistic term, as a substantial essence, void of
characteristics, conditions or limitations, as the Apeiron, the
Infinite, the Timeless, the Shapeless. This is a
philosophical term, with no religious or theological tohu wa bohu, void
of any Lutheran connotations of "wuest und leer" (desolate and empty).
Anaximander is postulating a single, original principle;
him, only one
world, the beloved Patria, existed, and his "historic" task was to find
its philosophic explanation. The Patria had to be affirmed, future
Capital must be eternalized, Man must be internalized, "hegemonized".
Apeiron, Chaos, is eternal, is limitless, is internally, intensively
automated, is self-moving. Only in these terms, we can speak of Apeiron
as archaic substance, as matter. It did not come into existence, it
cannot pass away.
we can only "believe" in timeless beings, in Gods, but,
Anaximander could think about something beyond the parameters of Space
a n d Time; definitely, not everything on Earth, and in the Universe,
is determined by these Kantian categories of the Intellect. Surely,
this is not usual, the ideologically infested, manipulated and
indoctrinated brains of most "human beings" have lost the intellectual
a n d rational capacity to reason beyond formal-logical temporal and
spatial categories, beyond Motion-At-Rest. Philosophically, Anaximander
affirmed Mickey Mouse, running in his cage, on his eternal carousel at
rest; a priori, he affirmed the reconciliatory democratic policy of
Nelson Mandela, previously exercising in his small cell No. 5, on
Robben Island, always "running on the same spot". This is Patrian
guarantees that "everything is possible", that everything within the
system can possibly be changed, also that "what will be, certainly,
will be", when not by itself, then the Inquisition, the Gas Chambers,
the Bombs on Kosovo, will help out a little bit; simply, because this
closed uniform, unitary system necessarily has its own Dynamo,
Automation and Autodynamism. Later, Aristotle will explain to us its
dynamei on, its own In-Possibility-Being, and the Marxist, Ernst Bloch,
will derive from it the "Principle of Hope" for Mankind.
autodynamism, the Apeiron, Chaos, like a universal chameleon, can take
on all forms of appearances: slavery, tyranny, feudalism, democracy,
world peace, human rights, racism, fascism, real socialism, nazism,
apartheid. In fact, internal motion, contradiction, dialectics, in
essence, Anaximander was already explaining.
their weight, nowadays we would say atomic weight, things are formed
and emerge from the Apeiron. According to him, first emerges water, the
element of his teacher, as a result of the contradiction "coldness -
warmth", in other words, hydor is now the synthesis of the above thesis
- antithesis. This simply means that Anaximaander had deepened the arche
of his teacher, he transformed it into "still waters run deep". In
these profound waters, new contradictions arise, forming new
substances, new creations; eventually, the sun, the stars, the animals,
the plants, human beings, came into existence. He gave his own version
Theory of Evolution, hence he even paved the road for Charles Darwin
and Social Darwinism.
above has a cosmic, creative character; within the realm of
demythologization, it has nothing to with the Olympus, or with future
monotheistic Gods. On the contrary, Anaximander, like Thales, explains
Being-Out-Of-Itself, it lays a materialist, hylozoistic, panpsychic
foundation, it points towards Hobbes, towards bourgeois mechanical
materialism, towards the philosophic superstructure for the "Leviathan"
and for Orwell's "Big Brother". Anaximander personifies Dominant Man
Himself, His Dawning Self-Consciousness, the Archaic Accumulation of
Bourgeois Reason, of Creative, Future, Intellectual Profiteering and
In A Nut-Shell
Apeiron, Chaos, Matter is permanently fermenting, germinating and
brewing, encompassing all productive processes of
and uneven development; this will later be explained by
Trotsky in his Theory of Permanent Revolution. Anaximander himself
stated that the Apeiron "encompasses all the worlds".
his Physics (
III, 8 208a 8), Aristotle told us exactly why he chose the Apeiron as
arche: " in order that becoming must not pass away"; this is already a
transhistoric fata morgana of the panta rhei of Heracleitus.
Furthermore, the arche becomes logical, cognitive, "abstract", becomes
an "object of thought", a "
a "thing of thought", a philosophic concept.
taught us that "seeing is not necessarily believing",
perception could lead to cognition, but it may be dangerously
deceptive, it can be an essential instrument for indoctrination and
ideology. Also, Anaximander did not only characterize the Apeiron as
eternal, also Internal Motion, intensive Change, Systemic Development,
is spaceless, is timeless. For the eternal existence of the Patria this
is quintessential, also for future superstructural ideology. Of course,
we can only remark: Dream On !
OF WISDOM VII
Fragment of Anaximander
Franz J. T. Lee
before, we have to depend heavily on "officially" preserved philosophic
data; we do not know what exactly the Milesian philosophers "really
thought" or what they "really meant". At any event, it is not even
decisive what they really expounded; as part of the ideological
superstructure, they have been censured; just as "unfavourable"
passages of the "Holy Bible" were time and again reproved, in order to
serve ruling class interests; similarly, across the ages, philosophic
fragments were interpreted in a way which best suited the ideological
interests of various dominant "historic" forces. For example, during
the Dark Ages, Psyche, Ananke, Apeiron, Logos, Nous, Summum Bonum,
Form, all were baptized as the Christian Roman Catholic God, Our Father
Almighty. Anything "spiritual" became "divine". This practice has
continued until modern times; across the globe, today still,
unnecessarily, students of philosophy have to wreck their brains with
these ideological products of dogmatic censorship. "Freedom of Thought"
and "Freedom of Speech", when they clash directly with economic
exploitation and political domination, simply magically transform
themselves into modern chimeras and phantasmagorias.
Weib und Gesang !!
this, traduttore traditore played havoc with original texts. From "bad"
to "worse", there are many Old Greek words, like "komos", which nobody
has the foggiest notion what they should denote, probably expressing
things or relations which are non-existent in our modern times. Some
"experts" associate the above term with an extinct social intercourse,
with a specific jolly happening. In this case, certainly the ancient
Greeks would have encountered a similar embarrassing situation, if they
had to translate the German "Wein, Weib und Gesang". How would they
know that it is a patrian, masculine nocturnal procession of
semi-intoxicated elitist youth, frolicking along the streets, in "Romeo
and Julia" style, singing, boozing and dancing in front of the moonlit
windows of their sweethearts, of their beloved "Fräulein". For sure,
this is not exactly the pendant to the Greek concept "komos".
reminder, we do not claim "intellectual property rights", we are not
interested in "correct" translations and interpretations; in fact,
anybody can believe whatever she or he wants to, also everybody should
enjoy the consequences of her or his convictions. For us, who or what
is "right" or "wrong" is completely irrelevant. Who or what is neither
"right", nor "wrong", certainly interests us. We state what we think;
who likes it or does not like it, that is not our problem, that is not
our "business"; but "who still have ears to hear, let them hear us!"
facto, we can
only analyse that what we can comprehend; epistemologically, we can
only understand that what we know; and logically, in accordance with
the above, we are able to interpret any philosophic trilemma which may
present itself to us. Any other method, learning by rote, in parrot
fashion, will definitely end up in academic disasters and social
mayhem. In this sane, healthy, philosophic "spirit", we will now
continue with our philosophic deliberations.
Strange Ways of Ananke
this short lecture, we will just take a philosophic glance at the most
important fragment of Anaximander, from "On Nature".
of Necessity (Anánke), into that from
things come-into-existence, they pass
for they make reparation and satisfaction
one another for their injustice, according to
order of time."
aber die Dinge ihr Entstehen haben,
geht auch ihr Vergehen nach der
denn sie zahlen einander Strafe
Buße für ihre Ruchlosigkeit nach der
Bloch, Gesamtausgabe, Band 12,
in der Philosophiegeschichte,
suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main,
who or what is anánke ?
Symposium (195C, 197 B), Ananke appears as a Divinity of Fate, as a
Schicksalsgöttin, as a Goddess of Fortune. Sometimes she is also called
Adrásteia, (Plato, Phaedr. 248 C; Plotin, Enn. III 2, 13. A.), die
Unentrinnbare, the Inescapable.
Homer and Hesiod, but also Archilochos, in mythological times, the
Greeks feared Fate, the wrath of their gods. but they were also victims
of "bad fortune", of their own mortal impotence; they feared Death, the
Moira, the Daemon, Ananke. In philosophic times, in Ionia and
elsewhere, Fate, Ananke, acquired a more updated connotation. Now, with
hybris, with pride (Hochmut), the Greeks could determine their lives
themselves, in spite of the fangs of Fate. Feminine Ananke was
transformed into Masculine Necessity; the Cosmic Order, which was
guaranteed by Zeus, directly from Olympus, now also included individual
contradiction "Fateful Necessity -- Human Free Will" entered the scene
Milesian times, Ananke had already acquired masculine, deterministic,
necessary, Patrian features. To interpret the above
fragment is well-nigh impossible, because every original ancient Greek
word had a specific philosophic meaning, which today we can just
intelligently guess or deduce logically. "Ananke"
fate, a divine force, necessity; it also included other meanings like
"a strict, generally accepted, behaviour pattern", "according to
"according to the order of time", "nach der festgesetzten Zeit", does
not simply mean "according to history", in a modern sense. This phrase
has a cosmogonic, mythological tone; it comes from the Olympus, from
where Father Chronos spoke, ordered and ordained. The main clause, the
philosophic gist of this fragment, is hard to explain. The German
philosopher, Ernst Bloch, attempted to interpret its meaning, and
according to him, in the Apeiron, in the process of Being-Becoming, the
things, in their individual agon (strife), file themselves away, slough
themselves off, and this occurs, according to the "order of time",
according to the ordinances of Chronos. However, what is decisive, is
that the things do not pay reparation or make satisfaction to the
Apeiron or to Chronos, but rather to one another, to themselves. This
is a kind of self-sacrifice for their own coming-into-being.
the term in the text, "for their injustice", acquires another
connotation. "Injustice" is determined by agon, by Strife, by War.
Things move, strive, are in conflict, in contradiction. Later this
virulent concept will come up again in the philosophy of Heracleitus,
even in the Political Theory of Thomas Hobbes. In the Apeiron, in
Becoming-Being, the things are in permanent violent strife; with one
another, they battle for and against the location
themselves according to the order of time. Already in this fragment we
can trace the basics of the future Dialectical Logics.
this philosophic "crossroad", from feminine mythology to masculine
philosophy, this dialectics, can be interpreted as follows:
existence form of a developing phainómenon, thing or appearance, forms
a contradiction to (and with) its "old" original existence form, in the
womb of Father Apeiron, previously, of Gaia, the Great Mother.
should not be, formal logic should reign. Any contradiction must be
resolved, be absolved. The future Patria cannot permit contradiction,
hence things, beings, human beings, must make reparation and
satisfaction (for their contradictory "sins"), because only the
Apeiron, only Chaos, only the One Infinite Principle Itself is Justice,
is Rest. Contradiction, Motion, is Injustice! Later we will encounter
this Cosmic Justice again in the Philosophy of Heracleitus of Ephesus.
| HISTORY OF
Franz J. T. Lee
philosophic process of sapientia, of sophía, within the context of the
"Pre-Socratic" period, we will now continue with another Milesian
hylozoistic thinker, Anaximenes of Miletus.
series of "History of Wisdom" will only deal with the "Pre-Socratics",
illuminating in "Society", in the Superstructure, the introduction of
"Intellectual Labour", which definitely had perverted the original
historic, emancipatory relations; thus we will demonstrate the
transition from History to the Patria, the transvolution from
"matriarchy" (feminine mythology) to "patriarchy" (masculine
philosophy). We will then return to the elaboration of our Epistemology
and Method, and later continue with our section "History of Wisdom".
this part we are applying our Epistemology and Logical Method; our
Philosophy includes idealist and materialist views, but we "superate"
("aufheben") them, by also taking into account "neither materialist,
nor idealist" approaches; furthermore, we also transcend, we excel all
these, and we focus on other mensions, within the realm of Trialogics,
of Nothing, of Chaos.
some readers who are accustomed to formal-logical "reasoning", our
thoughts might seem awkward and "chaotic", not worth the name
"philosophy"; unfortunately, if this is the case, we have to appeal to
intellectual patience, rational endurance and wise sobriety. Who knows,
in some brain, perhaps somehow, somewhither, somewhere, sometime, the
famous red "Eureka" signal might flicker, the "Groschen", the dime or
penny, might fall, and like Caesar crossing the Rubicon, together we
might celebrate the transcending jacta est alea (the die is cast)! In
any case, due to ideological reasons, the "Truth Is Always
Upside-Down", is topsy-turvy, hence the reverse might also occur, and
because our views are neither "right", nor "wrong", we would be the
first ones to learn something "new", something historic and
of Miletus (585 - 525? B.C.)
Anaximander made a retrogressive step, however, only to take two
scientific paces ahead. He stated that the Arche is aêr, pneuma. Aêr
can be translated as both air and mist, as fog, or even as breath, in a
wider sense. Again, as we will note, all three Milesian
Philosophy" had the social order ("Sozialauftrag") to consolidate a
single, concrete, primordial Principle for the Patriarchal
Superstructure, for Patrian Philosophy. All three principles, hydor,
apeiron and aêr, are different philosophic appearance forms of the very
same thing, of Infinite, Eternal Being-At-Rest. Later, Parmenides of
Elea, with his Sphairos will solidify, will consolidate this principle
as Hen kai Pan, as Unomnia, as One And All.
rarefaction of air, fire develops; through condensation of air, the
clouds, water and earth come into being. However, as we stated above,
aêr, breath and psyche are synonymous. In this way, Anaximenes gave an
explanation of all four elements of ancient Greek panvitalistic
Philosophy-Chemistry (water, air, fire and earth).
panpsychic luminary made an important contribution to the understanding
of Patrian universal motion, of affirmative action, of affirmative
ideology, that is, of intensive, internal dialectical development.
Although he explained kínesis, motion, yet this was not his main
philosophic motive; on the contrary, it belonged to the "social order"
of Heracleitus. He specifically concentrated his philosophic endeavours
on the Problem of Motion. Motion should not be, more precisely, Motion
should Be, everything should Be-At-Rest.
all Motion in the Pan, in the Universe, to internal changes of density
within Aêr. The morphé, the form (see: Aristotle) of a thing, of a
phainómenon, of a manifestation or of an appearance, is a result of the
compactness or looseness of its material (solid) composition, caused by
rarefaction or condensation of the Archaic Principle, of Aêr. It is
noteworthy that all three Milesians were using dialectical principles,
they applied concepts like kataphásis (affirmation), apóphasis
(negation), thésis, antíthesis and synthesis. Hylozoism is filled with
panvitalistic syzygies, with philosophic conjunction, opposition and
union, in other words, with dialectics.
distension of Aêr create all things, account for the multifarious,
multiplex phenomena. Obviously, Anaximenes had already introduced some
of the Laws of Hegelian Dialectics, for example, that quantitative
changes eventually bring about qualitative transformations.
Milesians taught us that we can think in a "divine" way, without
creating fictional "gods", without "believing" in divinities. They
warned us that we should not, by looking at the multitudinous trees,
forget to "see", to think the vast forest, but also not to forget to
see a n d to think, to identify a n d to differentiate, an individual
tree a n d a different forest. Alétheia men hólon, as Hegel would say,
"Das Wahre ist das Ganze", the Truth is the Whole, the Truth is the
Whole Truth, id est, The Truth a n d The Non-Truth. We get nowhere,
nowhither, with ideology, with semi-truths and "white" lies.
OF WISDOM IX
535 - 475 B. C. )
Lux! Eternal Fieri!
archaic, dialectical Explosion! Pyr, Tyr, Fire, Feuer, Fuego!
Phos, Novas and Supernovas In, Into, Out of Nyx, of Chaos, of Cosmos.
infinitesimal realm of zillionfold Nothing, meteoric, metamorphic
sparks blaze the ancient Indian vrt, the old Slavic vratiti, and
belively they spotlight the Werden, the Becoming, of Hegel, Marx and
rhei! Everything Flows! In this cosmic fireworks, in this
Heracleitus of Ephesus visualizes the omnifluent dynamic thalatta of
Pyr, of Fire, his omnipresent Arche. This fiery vis vitalis, this
glowing-gloaming, omnivorous Principle has its matrix in cosmogonic
mythology, as Marx would say, in the prehistoric "superstructure".
us give a brief cosmogonic background to the philosophy of
in which "war", "strife", "logos" and "eros" will play central roles.
Who was Miss N, Miss Nyx? Nothing? Nichts? Niks? Nix? Nada? Nihil,
Nihil Ad Rem?
Greek mythology, She was a powerful cosmogonical figure,
the King of the Gods; she was the female personification of Night,
Nacht, Noche. In nearly all modern patriarchal languages, most of the
"N's" represent her Name, her Née, her "Negative" character: Nature,
Negro, Native, Nero, Nazi, Night, Nothing, Nihil, No, Non, Not,
Neither, Nor, Nefarious, Nadir, Naja, Nasik, Nasalis, Njet, Net,
Netscape, News, etc.
names, one of them was the "Yawning Gap", the primeval Chaos itself.
She was the Great Grandmother, who gave birth to the Great Mother,
Gaea. According to some censured mythological versions, it is even
denied that She, as Chaos, gave birth to Gaea.
intellectual labour competition was already rife in Ancient Greece,
hence we have various competing cosmogonic versions concerning Nyx and
Chaos. Hesiod's Theogony (around 700 B.C.) is the only cosmogony which
had survived in more than doubtful fragments. He recorded the
generation of gods until Zeus and his divine contemporaries.
does Hesiod explain Chaos, the masculine version of the female Nyx, in
Primordial Emptiness or the Abyss of Tartarus, the Underworld. At the
beginning was Chaos, and He gave birth to Gaea (Earth, Nature) and Eros
(Desire). Then the Genesis continued: Gaea produced Uranus, the
Mountains, and Neptune, the Sea. From Gaea's subsequent erotic union
with Uranus were born the Titans, the Cyclopes, and the Hecatoncheires.
the son of Chaos, of Nyx, and not of Gaea, of Earth. Later censured
traditions baptized him as the son of Aphrodite, also called Diana or
Venus, the goddess of sexual love and beauty. It is not even sure who
was his divine father. We can choose between Zeus (the King of the
Gods), Ares (God of War and of Battle) and Hermes (Messenger God of
Wealth and Communications).
was Iapetus, who fathered Prometheus and Epimetheus. It was Prometheus
who had stolen Pyr, the Fire, from the Gods, and gave it to the earthly
beings, to the philosopher Heracleitus. Zeus, fearing that the earthly
creatures would become just "like one of us", sent them a huge Pandora
Box full of lovely surprises.
then is the
mythological-philosophical genealogy from the cosmogonic, feminine Nyx,
Chaos, to the hylozoistic, masculine Fire, Logos, of Heracleitus.
we have seen
before, the three Milesians, Thales, Anaximenes, Anaximander, had
regarded the Cosmos, in its chemical essence, as composed of four major
elements: water, air, fire and earth. Everything else was derived from
the interaction of these elements.
hylozoistic aristocrat, Heracleitus, wanted to explain why things
change, why they have to change? In our conception, he wanted to
explain the Bezug, the Relation, internal, intensive Motion, within the
One Principle, within the Cosmos, within the "World of Worlds".
OF WISDOM X
535 - 475 B. C. )
Friedrich Wilhelm Hegel who had decorated Heracleitus as the Originator
of the Laws of Dialectics, and it was Friedrich Engels who had praised
the Ancient Greek philosophers as having been excellent "natural-born"
dialecticians. Heracleitus was the first philosophic analyser of the
general Laws of Motion.
framework of our Philosophy, of our Logics, let us elucidate, what
exactly Heracleitus was explaining. Until now, our Logics has three
sectors: Unilogics, Dialogics and Trialogics, they occupy themselves
with Rest (Ruhe, Reposo), Motion (Bewegung, Movimiento) and Bezug
(Relation, Relacion), respectively. Rest is a Unigory, Motion exists as
a Diagory, Bezug excels as a Triagory.
"-gories" are written, expressed, as follows:
a n d Motion) ;
a n d Motion AND Bezug) .
Rest a n d Motion, Rest a n d Motion AND Bezug.
words and language, they are identified as Percept (Rest),
(Rest a n d Motion) and Transcept (Rest a n d Motion
Bezug), and are simply expressed as "Rest", "Motion", "Bezug",
"The Patria is at rest";
"Water exists in motion", meaning "Water is at rest a n d exists
"Water, not its being hydrogen, not its existing oxygen,
Fire", meaning, "Water (neither hydrogen, nor
extinguishes Fire" or "Water (hydrogen a n d
AND water) extinguishes Fire".
"Tat Twam Asi" Principle
Indian Philosophy, in the Brahman tradition, can assist us a little bit
to understand what is meant by this "double" expression, by the
dialogical existence of a "concept". We have to think the "Tat Twam
Asi" Principle. It simply means that "You" have to consider yourself as
a n d "Everything Else", in short:
Are Everything Else!
German: "das (naemlich: alles andere) bist du."
further information, see the first "Lectures" on our Web Site:
. Also: http://franzjutta.com .
rhei! a n d Motion
preoccupied Heracleitus? He wanted to know why things cannot remain as
they are, at rest, and why they have to change, why they are in motion?
our concept "Motion" and the term "motion or change"
of Heracleitus are not identical, but they have similarities,
approximations. Hence, as expressed by us, above, Heracleitus was
analysing our concept, being thought as
a n d
Motion", but simply expressedas Motion ; however, he treated it not as
a diagorical concept, but as a dialectical one. The difference that
exists between patrian dialectics and our dialogics, we will explain in
other lectures. In both cases, internal, intensive, systemic Motion is
being analysed. This Motion, Evolution, never transcends the system; it
only reforms (affirms)
revolutionizes (negates) its very essential interior. In the patrian
case, the analysis does ONLY this, and nothing more. In our case, among
other things, it does this, but NOT ONLY this, but MUCH MORE !
Heracleitus analyses Motion in a one-principled "closed system", in the
fiery "world of worlds", in the burning Patria. We also analyse this,
but much more, for example, the Patria in History, History in the
Patria, but these are not the only things which are or which exist
within History. Zillions of things transcend the Patria, superceed
in Motion, Becoming-Being
had considered Fire to be rarefied Air, but Heracleitus had agitated
the Arche. Precisely because he put Pyr and Phos, Fire and Light, into
this primordial Being; by placing the Supreme Light Heaven, the
Empyreum, and The Bringer of Light, Lucifer, together in his genetic,
archaic crucible, he logically caused strife, commotion, he converted
Being into Becoming-Being, thus, he set Being in Motion. As the fiery
essence of cosmic dikaiosyne (justice), now Agon (Strife, War,
Dialectics) agonized all Being in its totality.
cosmogonic, cosmologic Promethean Fire luciferously entered the
materialist current of patrian philosophy. As we can note, it was not
the mythologic "heroic" Hercules, but the philosophic "obscure"
Heracleitus, who had rescued "divine" Fire to be placed productively in
the service of earthly, patrian development and progress. Now we
understand why Karl Marx in his Doctoral Dissertation fierily had
ordained Prometheus as the first heroic saint in the philosophic
calendar of historical materialism. Virgil's words are quintessentially
true for Heracleitus:
si nequeo superos, Acheronta movebo, If I can't move the Gods, I'll
stir up Hell!
let Heracleitus for himself speak clarus et distinctus:
world, which is the same for all, no one of gods
men has made; but it was ever, is now, and ever
be an ever-living Fire, with measures kindling and
going out. ... War is the father of all and the
of all; and some he has made gods and some men,
bond and some free. ... Homer was wrong in
'Would that Strife might perish from among
and men!' He did not see that he was praying for
destruction of the Universe; for, if his prayers were
all things would pass away. ... We must know that
is Common to All, and Strife is Justice."
Diels, Fragments 30 and 53.)
preserved "Fragments' of Heracleitus, about 140 in number, of which
some 14 are either not genuine, or are falsified, we can trace the
fiery, blazing trails of eternal gignestai (Motion, Change).
in the case
of Thales, also Heracleitus expressed the superstructure of his epoch,
of primitive accumulation of Capital. Again, let Heracleitus say it
expressis verbis; he wrote:
Things are in exchange for Fire, and Fire for all things, even as wares
for gold and gold for wares." (Diels, Fragment 90)
BE CONTINUED SOON)